1.1 Definition: Pigments and Dyes

Colourants are classified as either pigments or dyes. Pigments are inorganic or organic, coloured, white or black materials that are practically insoluble in the medium in which they are incorporated. Dyes, unlike pigments, do dissolve during their application and in the process lose their crystal or particulate structure. It is thus by physical characteristics rather than by chemical composition that pigments are differentiated from dyes [1]. In fact, both are frequently similar as far as the basic chemical composition goes, and one structural skeleton may function either as a dye or as a pigment.

In many cases the general chemical structure of dyes and pigments is the same. The necessary insolubility ...

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