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Industrial Software Applications

Book Description

This book is written for engineering students and working professionals. Technical professionals are increasingly involved in IT issues, such as implementing IT systems, managing them, and taking part in requirements analysis/vendor selection. In this book, the basics of production planning systems (PPS) are covered, as well as their implementation in ERP-Systems like SAP. Readers also learn the basics of practical IT management and software creation through detailed, real-world examples. The book serves as a full 5 ECTS study module, which fits into any engineering curriculum. 150 multiple-choice quizzes, practical exercises and a text filled with experiential examples make it a convenient choice for selfstudy and for classroom use.

Table of Contents

  1. Title Page
  2. Copyright Page
  3. Table of Figures
  4. List of Tables
  5. Dedication
  6. Foreword
  7. Table of Contents
  8. 1 Introduction and Types of Information Systems (IS)
    1. 1.1 Significance of Information Systems (IS)
      1. 1.1.1 Scope of View: What is an Information System and IS-Management?
      2. 1.1.2 Environmental Influences
      3. 1.1.3 Role of IS: Influence on Operations
      4. 1.1.4 Role of IS: Influence on Strategy
      5. 1.1.5 Significance of IS: Financial View
        1. 1.1.5.1 Empirical Evidence
        2. 1.1.5.2 The Concept of Total Cost of Ownership (TCO)
        3. 1.1.5.3 IS Impact on the Return of Capital Employed (ROCE)
    2. 1.2 Types of IT-Systems
      1. 1.2.1 The Overall View on Information Systems
      2. 1.2.2 Operative Transaction Processing Systems (TPS)
      3. 1.2.3 Different Management Information Systems
        1. 1.2.3.1 Management Information Systems (MIS)
        2. 1.2.3.2 Decision Support Systems (DSS)
        3. 1.2.3.3 Executive Support Systems (ESS)
    3. 1.3 Processes as Dominant Objects of IS
      1. 1.3.1 What is a Process?
      2. 1.3.2 Definition and Documentation of Processes
      3. 1.3.3 Computerization of Processes with Workflows and Workflow Management Systems (WFM)
    4. 1.4 The Value Chain of IT-Companies
    5. 1.5 Summary of Chapter 1
    6. 1.6 Literature for Chapter 1
    7. 1.7 Review Questions for Chapter 1
      1. 1.7.1 Choose: Elements of an Application System
      2. 1.7.2 Choose: Advantages of IS
      3. 1.7.3 Close: Reasons for Problems with IS
      4. 1.7.4 Close: Share of Information Technology in the overall Number of Investments
      5. 1.7.5 Choose: Relation between IT-Stock/Assets and Productivity
      6. 1.7.6 Close: Spending on Information Technologies
      7. 1.7.7 Close: Distribution of IS and Running Cost in a TCO View
      8. 1.7.8 Choose: Types of Cost according to TCO
      9. 1.7.9 Choose: The Ultimate Goal of IS
      10. 1.7.10 Close: Classification of IS
      11. 1.7.11 Close: Different IS Applications
      12. 1.7.12 Close: Functions of TPS Systems
      13. 1.7.13 Close: Management Systems
      14. 1.7.14 True/False: Characteristics of a Process
      15. 1.7.15 Close: Notation Systems for Processes
      16. 1.7.16 Choose: Automation Levels of a Workflow System
    8. 1.8 Suggestions for Written Exercise or Groupwork for Chapter 1
      1. 1.8.1 Total Cost of Ownership Concept
      2. 1.8.2 Operative and Strategic Impact of Information Systems
      3. 1.8.3 Research Success and Failure Stories
  9. 2 Focus on Production Planning Systems (PPS)
    1. 2.1 PPS at the Core of Industrial Manufacturing
      1. 2.1.1 Manufacturing Process and Materials Management
      2. 2.1.2 Functions of a PPS
    2. 2.2 Important Master Data in a PPS
      1. 2.2.1 Materials
        1. 2.2.1.1 Bill of Materials (BoM)
        2. 2.2.1.2 Categories and Types of BoMs
        3. 2.2.1.3 How Bills of Material are Used in Production Planning
      2. 2.2.2 Work Center
      3. 2.2.3 Work Plan (in SAP Called “Routing”)
    3. 2.3 Production Planning
      1. 2.3.1 Quantity Planning
      2. 2.3.2 Scheduling of Production
      3. 2.3.3 Capacity Planning and Capacity Leveling
    4. 2.4 Production Control
      1. 2.4.1 The Production Order (PO)
      2. 2.4.2 Timing of Production Order
        1. 2.4.2.1 Availability Check
        2. 2.4.2.2 Releasing the Production Order
      3. 2.4.3 Production Order Control via Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES)
      4. 2.4.4 Work Order Completion Message in the ERP-System
    5. 2.5 Summary of Chapter 2
    6. 2.6 Literature for Chapter 2
    7. 2.7 Review Questions for Chapter 2
      1. 2.7.1 True/False: Elements of MRP
      2. 2.7.2 Close: Functions of MRP II – Steps
      3. 2.7.3 Close: Elements in MRP II Explained
      4. 2.7.4 Close: Different Material Types
      5. 2.7.5 Choose: Categories of BoMs
      6. 2.7.6 Close: Types of BoM’s
      7. 2.7.7 Choose: Purposes of a Work Center
      8. 2.7.8 Choose: Purposes of a Work Plan (Routing)
      9. 2.7.9 Calculation: Exploding a BoM for Calculating Needed Quantities
      10. 2.7.10 Calculation: Calculating Lead Time and Start of Production
      11. 2.7.11 Close: Capacity Offered
      12. 2.7.12 Close: The Cycle of Production Control
      13. 2.7.13 Choose: Production Order
      14. 2.7.14 Choose: PO Single Process Steps
      15. 2.7.15 Calculation: Availability Check
      16. 2.7.16 Choose: Releasing the Production Order
      17. 2.7.17 Close: Standard Reference Model for Manufacturing Related IS
      18. 2.7.18 Choose: Information Contained in a Work Order Completion Message
    8. 2.8 Suggestions for Written Exercise or Groupwork for Chapter 2
      1. 2.8.1 Exploding BoM and scheduling
      2. 2.8.2 MES and Below
  10. 3 Integration of Information Systems: Forms, Methods and Concepts
    1. 3.1 Introduction: Integration of Information Systems
      1. 3.1.1 Direction, Methods and Automation of Integration
      2. 3.1.2 Benefits and Risks of Integration
      3. 3.1.3 Vertical Integration via Programs in Functional Silos
      4. 3.1.4 Horizontal Integration via Programs
    2. 3.2 Vertical Integration via Data Warehousing (DWH)
      1. 3.2.1 Extract, Transform, Load Data into the Data Warehouse
        1. 3.2.1.1 Extraction of Data from Operative Systems
        2. 3.2.1.2 Transformation of Data
        3. 3.2.1.3 Load and Storage of Data into a Persistent Database
      2. 3.2.2 DWH Output: OLAP to Answer Known Information Needs
      3. 3.2.3 DWH Output: Data Mining to Find Unknown Patterns and Correlations
    3. 3.3 Horizontal Integration of Design and Production
      1. 3.3.1 Knowledge Based Systems in (Mechanical) Design
      2. 3.3.2 Product Data Management (PDM) and Product Data Lifecycle Management (PDL)
      3. 3.3.3 Reasons for Implementing PDM
        1. 3.3.3.1 Various Time Reductions by the Use of PDM
        2. 3.3.3.2 Cost Reduction
        3. 3.3.3.3 Quality Improvement
    4. 3.4 Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) and Service Oriented Architecture (SOA)
      1. 3.4.1 “Traditional” Means of Enterprise Application Integration Especially Middleware
        1. 3.4.1.1 Database Middleware
        2. 3.4.1.2 Remote Procedure Call (RPC)
        3. 3.4.1.3 Object-Request-Broker (ORB)
        4. 3.4.1.4 Message-Oriented Middleware (MOM)
      2. 3.4.2 The Concept of Web-Services
      3. 3.4.3 Extending Web-Service Standards for Business Needs
      4. 3.4.4 IS-Integration: Towards a Real SOA
    5. 3.5 Intercompany Integration via Exchange Standards
      1. 3.5.1 Electronic Document Exchange Standards (EDI)
      2. 3.5.2 Catalogue Exchange Standards
      3. 3.5.3 Material Classifications Standards
    6. 3.6 Summary of Chapter 3
    7. 3.7 Literature for Chapter 3
    8. 3.8 Review Questions for Chapter 3
      1. 3.8.1 Close: Dimensions of IS integration
      2. 3.8.2 True/False: Benefits of Integration
      3. 3.8.3 Chose: Optimum Point of Integration
      4. 3.8.4 True/False: Difference Between ERP-Systems and Data Warehouse
      5. 3.8.5 Close: ETL Processes
      6. 3.8.6 Choose: Error Correction in the Transformation of Data
      7. 3.8.7 Close: Transformation of Data
      8. 3.8.8 Close: OLAP Cube Terms
      9. 3.8.9 Close: Data Mining Operations
      10. 3.8.10 Close: Knowledge Based Systems in Design
      11. 3.8.11 Choose: Reasons for Integrating CAD and PPS Systems
      12. 3.8.12 Choose: Reasons for Implementing PDM
      13. 3.8.13 Close: Basic Elements of the Web-Service Concept
      14. 3.8.14 Close: Web Service Communication
      15. 3.8.15 Choose: Extension of Basic Web Service Communication
      16. 3.8.16 Close: Intercompany Integration via Exchange Standards
    9. 3.9 Suggestions for Written Exercise or Groupwork for Chapter 3
      1. 3.9.1 Data Defects and OLAP
      2. 3.9.2 CIM and Industry 4.0
  11. 4 ERP Systems: Basic Concepts and the Example SAP
    1. 4.1 System Integration via ERP System
      1. 4.1.1 Integration of Master Data
      2. 4.1.2 Integration of Processes
      3. 4.1.3 ERP Architecture
        1. 4.1.3.1 History of IT Architecture for ERP Applications
        2. 4.1.3.2 The “Classical” Three Tier Client-Server Approach of ERP Systems Architecture
        3. 4.1.3.3 Current Developments in ERP Systems
    2. 4.2 ERP Systems in the Market
      1. 4.2.1 Current ERP Market
      2. 4.2.2 Success of ERP Systems Implementation
        1. 4.2.2.1 Success of Introduction Projects
        2. 4.2.2.2 Success of Use
      3. 4.2.3 ERP Components Exemplified by SAP
        1. 4.2.3.1 The SAP Module PP and its Sub-Modules
        2. 4.2.3.2 The SAP Sub-Sub-Module PP-BD-BOM
        3. 4.2.3.3 Modules and Company Functions
    3. 4.3 Detailed View on Structure of Objects in SAP Modules
      1. 4.3.1 Enterprise Structure in Materials Management and Production Planning
      2. 4.3.2 Enterprise Structure in Financial Accounting and Controlling
      3. 4.3.3 Enterprise Structure in Sales
    4. 4.4 Using an ERP system by the example of SAP
      1. 4.4.1 Basic Look and Feel of the ERP System and Individual Settings
      2. 4.4.2 System Roles and Transactions
      3. 4.4.3 Access to the Training System
    5. 4.5 Summary of Chapter 4
    6. 4.6 Literature for Chapter 4
    7. 4.7 Review Questions for Chapter 4
      1. 4.7.1 Close: Evolution of Enterprise Systems
      2. 4.7.2 True/False: Statements about Data Views
      3. 4.7.3 Close: The Core Strength of an ERP-System
      4. 4.7.4 Close: ACID Principle in ERP Database Operations
      5. 4.7.5 Close: Client Server Structure and Tiers
      6. 4.7.6 Close: Client Server Operations
      7. 4.7.7 True/False: Advantages of Client Server
      8. 4.7.8 Choose: Key Players of ERP
      9. 4.7.9 Choose: Success of ERP Projects in the Last Years
      10. 4.7.10 Close: Modules and Submodules in SAP
      11. 4.7.11 Order: Hierarchy of Terms in SAP
      12. 4.7.12 Close: Structures in Materials Management
      13. 4.7.13 Close: Structures in Accounting
      14. 4.7.14 Close: Structures in Sales
      15. 4.7.15 True/False: Roles in an ERP System
    8. 4.8 Suggestions for Written Exercise or Groupwork
      1. 4.8.1 ERP Case Study
      2. 4.8.2 Differences Between SAP and Competitors
  12. 5 IT-Management
    1. 5.1 The Big Figure: IT Service Management (ITSM)
      1. 5.1.1 IT Governance
      2. 5.1.2 IT Compliance
    2. 5.2 IT Strategy and Business Alignment
      1. 5.2.1 Basic Business Strategies and Tools – Used for IS strategy
      2. 5.2.2 The Relationship Between Business and IT
      3. 5.2.3 The Process and Results of an IS Strategy
    3. 5.3 IT Service Management with the IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL)
      1. 5.3.1 The Macro View and Logic of the ITIL Framework
        1. 5.3.1.1 Service Orientation
        2. 5.3.1.2 Focus on Processes
        3. 5.3.1.3 Benefits and Challenges Using ITIL Processes
        4. 5.3.1.4 Structure of the ITIL Framework
          1. 5.3.1.4.1 ITIL Stage: Service Strategy
          2. 5.3.1.4.2 ITIL Stage: Service Design
          3. 5.3.1.4.3 ITIL Stage: Service Operation
          4. 5.3.1.4.4 ITIL Stage: Continual Service Improvement
      2. 5.3.2 Zoom in on Processes in the Stage of Service Transition
        1. 5.3.2.1 Transition Process: Transition Planning and Support
        2. 5.3.2.2 Transition Process: Release and Deployment Management
        3. 5.3.2.3 Transition Process: Service Validation and Testing
        4. 5.3.2.4 Transition Process: Evaluation
        5. 5.3.2.5 Transition Process: Knowledge Management
        6. 5.3.2.6 Transition Process: Service Assets and Configuration Management (SACM)
      3. 5.3.3 Zooming in on the ITIL Service Process of Change Management (CM) in the Stage of Service Transition
        1. 5.3.3.1 Processes of Change Management
        2. 5.3.3.2 Roles and Institutions of Change Management
        3. 5.3.3.3 Tools and Concepts of Change Management
        4. 5.3.3.4 Interfaces of Change Management
    4. 5.4 Other Frameworks and Approaches
      1. 5.4.1 Cobit as a Framework for ITSM and IS Compliance
      2. 5.4.2 IT-Controlling and Budgeting
        1. 5.4.2.1 Functions and Processes of IT-Controlling
        2. 5.4.2.2 Tools of IT-Controlling
        3. 5.4.2.3 Portfolios as a Tool of Strategic Controlling
        4. 5.4.2.4 Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) as Tool of Operative IT-Controlling
        5. 5.4.2.5 Management Accounting and Transfer Pricing for IT Services
    5. 5.5 Summary of Chapter 5
    6. 5.6 Literature for Chapter 5
    7. 5.7 Review Questions for Chapter 5
      1. 5.7.1 Choose: Benefits of an IS Management Framework
      2. 5.7.2 Close: Different Frameworks for IS Management
      3. 5.7.3 Choose: Questions of IS Governance
      4. 5.7.4 Close: Compliance vs. Governance
      5. 5.7.5 Choose: IT Compliance Checked by Auditors
      6. 5.7.6 Close: Business Strategy Tools as a Base for IS strategy
      7. 5.7.7 Choose: Business Strategy and IT Strategy
      8. 5.7.8 Choose: Strategic and Operative Questions of IT Management
      9. 5.7.9 Close: IT Strategy Written Down in an IT Strategy Paper
      10. 5.7.10 Choose: Customer Supplier Relationships Between Business and IT
      11. 5.7.11 Choose: Benefits of the ITIL Framework
      12. 5.7.12 Close: Components of ITIL 3.0 Framework
      13. 5.7.13 Close: Substructure and Chapters of Single ITIL Processes
      14. 5.7.14 Choose: Responsibilities of the Service Capacity Management
      15. 5.7.15 Choose: Responsibilities of the ITIL Service Process of Incident Management
      16. 5.7.16 Close: Processes and Tasks in Service Transition
      17. 5.7.17 Choose: Benefits of Good Change Management
      18. 5.7.18 Choose: Basic Steps of a CM Process
      19. 5.7.19 Close: Institutions of Change Management
      20. 5.7.20 Close: Authorization of Changes
      21. 5.7.21 Choose: Contents of a Newly Raised Request for Change (RFC)
      22. 5.7.22 Choose: Change Management: Metrics and Controlling
      23. 5.7.23 Close: Interfaces of Change Management
      24. 5.7.24 Choose: Operative and Strategic Tools of Controlling
      25. 5.7.25 Close: IT Project Portfolio
      26. 5.7.26 Choose: Characteristics of Good KPIs
    8. 5.8 Suggestions for Written Exercise or Groupwork for Chapter 5
      1. 5.8.1 ITIL Process of Problem Management
      2. 5.8.2 IS Governance and Strategy
  13. 6 Planning and Preparing IS Development
    1. 6.1 The Software Development Cycle
      1. 6.1.1 Basic Cycle of Software Development
      2. 6.1.2 A Broad Model of IS-Development
      3. 6.1.3 “Classical” Approaches of Structuring Software Development
        1. 6.1.3.1 The Waterfall Model
        2. 6.1.3.2 Spiral Model and Prototyping
        3. 6.1.3.3 Rational Unified Process (RUP)
      4. 6.1.4 Agile Concepts
        1. 6.1.4.1 Criticism Against Traditional Process Models and the Agile Manifesto
        2. 6.1.4.2 Use of Agile Methods in Business Today
        3. 6.1.4.3 The Dominant Agile Process Model: Scrum
    2. 6.2 Business Plan and Outsourcing Decision
      1. 6.2.1 The Business Plan – is it Worth it?
        1. 6.2.1.1 Converting Technical and Organizational Impact into Financials
        2. 6.2.1.2 Determining Feasibility and Data Sources of Alternatives
        3. 6.2.1.3 Writing the Business Case and Using Evaluation Tools
          1. 6.2.1.3.1 Construction of a Business Plan Sheet
          2. 6.2.1.3.2 Selecting Information to be Monetized for the Business Plan
          3. 6.2.1.3.3 Different Scenarios and Sensitivity Analysis
      2. 6.2.2 A Basic Decision in the Strategy Phase: Outsourcing
        1. 6.2.2.1 Goals and Forms of IT-Outsourcing
          1. 6.2.2.1.1 Outsourcing of Information Systems
          2. 6.2.2.1.2 Different Levels of Outsourcing
          3. 6.2.2.1.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing
        2. 6.2.2.2 Evaluating the Outsourcing Decision and Preparation
        3. 6.2.2.3 Service Level Agreements as a Frame of Managing Outsourcing Relationships
    3. 6.3 Requirements Engineering (RE)
      1. 6.3.1 Preparation and Management of Requirements Engineering
        1. 6.3.1.1 Goals and Scope of Requirements Engineering
        2. 6.3.1.2 Stakeholders’ Interest as Base of Requirements Engineering
      2. 6.3.2 Organizing and Executing Requirements Engineering
        1. 6.3.2.1 The Requirements Engineering Process
        2. 6.3.2.2 Creating Information for Requirements Engineering
        3. 6.3.2.3 Requirement Workshop
      3. 6.3.3 Types, Documentation and Management of Requirements
        1. 6.3.3.1 Types of Requirements in a Specification Document
        2. 6.3.3.2 Writing a Specification Document
    4. 6.4 Selecting and Contracting Vendors
      1. 6.4.1 Preparation and Preselection
      2. 6.4.2 Scoring Model
      3. 6.4.3 The Bid, Contract and Legal Matters
    5. 6.5 Summary of Chapter 6
    6. 6.6 Literature for Chapter 6
    7. 6.7 Review Questions for Chapter 6
      1. 6.7.1 Close: Comparing and Contrasting SDLC with ERP-LC
      2. 6.7.2 Close: A Broad Model of Software Development
      3. 6.7.3 True/False: The Waterfall Model of Software Development
      4. 6.7.4 True/False: The Spiral Model of Software Development
      5. 6.7.5 Close: Different Types of Prototypes
      6. 6.7.6 True/False: Principles of Agile Development
      7. 6.7.7 Choose: Benefits from Agile Programming
      8. 6.7.8 Choose: Concerns and Barriers for Agile Programming
      9. 6.7.9 Close: Elements of Scrum Project Management Concept
      10. 6.7.10 Close: Converting Technical and Organizational Impact into Financials
      11. 6.7.11 Choose: Characteristics of Measurable Organizational Impacts
      12. 6.7.12 Calculate: Full Value and Incremental Approach
      13. 6.7.13 Calculate: Financial Business Plan
      14. 6.7.14 Close: Facts to be Converted into Cash Positions for a Financial Calculation
      15. 6.7.15 Close: Types and Levels of Outsourcing
      16. 6.7.16 Choose: Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing
      17. 6.7.17 Close: Strategic Decision on Possible Outsourcing Targets
      18. 6.7.18 True/False: Advantages of a SLA Agreement
      19. 6.7.19 Close: Elements and Chapters of a Good SLA
      20. 6.7.20 Choose: Sources of Information for Requirements Engineering
      21. 6.7.21 Order: Agenda of a Good Requirements Workshop
      22. 6.7.22 Close: Possible Measures for Non-Functional Properties
      23. 6.7.23 Close: The Requirements Specification Document
      24. 6.7.24 Close: Using the Requirements Specification Document
      25. 6.7.25 Calculate: Scoring Model for Evaluating Providers and Products
    8. 6.8 Suggestions for Written Exercise or Groupwork for Chapter 6
      1. 6.8.1 Scoring Model for Vendor Selection
      2. 6.8.2 Software Creation Process Models
      3. 6.8.3 Create a “Software Requirement Specification” for a PPS System
      4. 6.8.4 Write a Business Case
  14. 7 Creating and Introducing IS
    1. 7.1 Systems Modelling, Design and Programming
      1. 7.1.1 Modelling Systems and Architecture
        1. 7.1.1.1 Behaviour Models and Diagrams
        2. 7.1.1.2 Structure Diagrams
        3. 7.1.1.3 Systems Architecture
      2. 7.1.2 Programming and Customizing
        1. 7.1.2.1 Software Programming
        2. 7.1.2.2 Customizing Standard Software like ERP Systems
      3. 7.1.3 Special Aspects of Project Management for Creating IS
        1. 7.1.3.1 Project Planning and Estimation Techniques
        2. 7.1.3.2 COCOMO as a Model of Parametric Estimation
        3. 7.1.3.3 Project Organization and Team Members
        4. 7.1.3.4 Controlling and Risk Control in Software Projects
    2. 7.2 Testing and Quality Assurance
      1. 7.2.1 Quality Management as a Frame for Testing
        1. 7.2.1.1 Defining Software Quality
        2. 7.2.1.2 Quality Systems
        3. 7.2.1.3 Capability Maturity Model (CMM)
      2. 7.2.2 Different Areas and Levels of Tests
        1. 7.2.2.1 Unit Testing
        2. 7.2.2.2 Systems Testing
        3. 7.2.2.3 Release and Acceptance Testing
      3. 7.2.3 Processes and Tools for Testing
        1. 7.2.3.1 Organizing and Planning Tests
        2. 7.2.3.2 Creating and Administrating Test Cases
        3. 7.2.3.3 Managing the Bug Life Cycle
        4. 7.2.3.4 Reporting of Test Advancement
    3. 7.3 Preparing the Organization for Introduction
      1. 7.3.1 Planning, Executing and Guiding Organizational Change
        1. 7.3.1.1 Business Process Reengineering and Management
        2. 7.3.1.2 Managing Organizational Change
      2. 7.3.2 Training for New Information Systems
        1. 7.3.2.1 Designing the Training Plan
        2. 7.3.2.2 Measuring Training Success
      3. 7.3.3 Introducing New or Improved Information Systems
        1. 7.3.3.1 Go Live Readiness for Implementation
        2. 7.3.3.2 Conversion Strategies for Implementation
        3. 7.3.3.3 Stabilization and Early Live Support
    4. 7.4 Summary of chapter 7
    5. 7.5 Literature for chapter 7
    6. 7.6 Review Questions for Chapter 7
      1. 7.6.1 Close: UML Behaviour Diagrams
      2. 7.6.2 Close: Critical Requirements that Help Choosing Basic Architectural Patterns
      3. 7.6.3 Choose: Basic “Customization” in the SAP-Sense
      4. 7.6.4 Choose: Problems with Intense Customization of ERP-Systems
      5. 7.6.5 Close: Methods of Estimating the Effort of a Software Project
      6. 7.6.6 Close: Function Point Method for Calculating the Basic Effort of Creating an IS
      7. 7.6.7 Close: Effort Multipliers for Calculating the Size of the Project
      8. 7.6.8 Close: Types of Team Members
      9. 7.6.9 True/False: Professional and Cultural Diversity in Team Dynamics
      10. 7.6.10 Choose: The “Almost Done!” Syndrome as a Threat to IS Project Controlling and Success
      11. 7.6.11 Choose: Evaluating and Reporting Risk
      12. 7.6.12 Close: Strategies for Handling Risk
      13. 7.6.13 True/False: Testing and QM
      14. 7.6.14 Close: Capability Maturity Model (CMM)
      15. 7.6.15 Close: Different Levels of Testing
      16. 7.6.16 Close: Errors, Bugs and Faults
      17. 7.6.17 Close: Elements of Unit-testing
      18. 7.6.18 Calculate: Boundary/Partition Testing
      19. 7.6.19 Close: Process of Acceptance Test
      20. 7.6.20 Close: Resolution of Bugs
      21. 7.6.21 Close: Severity of Bugs
      22. 7.6.22 Close: Forms of Organizational Change
      23. 7.6.23 Close: Basic Change Management Strategies
      24. 7.6.24 Close: Designing the Training Plan for User Testing
      25. 7.6.25 Close: Measuring Training Success
      26. 7.6.26 Close: Fields of a Go Live Readiness Assessment matrix
      27. 7.6.27 Close: Basic Implementation/Cutover Strategies
    7. 7.7 Suggestions for Written Exercise or Groupwork for chapter 7
      1. 7.7.1 Creating a Test Case
      2. 7.7.2 IT Project-Success
  15. 8 Solutions for Review Questions
    1. 8.1 Review Questions for Chapter 1
    2. 8.2 Review Questions for Chapter 2
    3. 8.3 Review Questions for Chapter 3
    4. 8.4 Review Questions for Chapter 4
    5. 8.5 Review Questions for Chapter 5
    6. 8.6 Review Questions for Chapter 6
    7. 8.7 Review Questions for Chapter 7
  16. Index