2Disciplinary Boundaries

2.1. A return to the notion of the boundary object

“Invention does not guarantee innovation. Innovation is an industrialized invention that is brought to market. Invention is an idea and innovation requires its concrete realization at the service of users and customers” (Durance and Mousli 2010). In research, we often find ourselves in the middle between invention and technological innovation.

In recent times, innovation based on technological mastery has explored various spatial and temporal scale changes (Dodet 2001), with significant epistemological problems related to the exploration of subjects requiring interdisciplinary convergence actions (André 2017). Associated to this change in traditional scales are recent developments in science that also escape normality and predictability. They are, in a word, linear. These make strong interactions appear for systems that are opening new research avenues, as well as for systems that were launched 20 years ago: optoelectronics, nanomaterials and nanotechnologies, NBIC convergence, new information and communication technologies, security and health (bio-printing, advanced medical imaging, telemedicine, personalized medicine, etc.).

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