2.1. Four Information Levels

Advanced information systems are sometimes described as “intelligent”. Just what intelligence is, and whether machines will ever be intelligent, are debatable questions. In the Turing Test of intelligence, based on a revised version of a test proposed by Alan Turing in 1950,[1] an opaque screen is placed between a typical human (see A in Figure 2.1) and the object being tested for intelligence. The human can communicate with the object only by means of computer (with keyboard for input and screen for output). The human may communicate in natural language about any desired topic.

[1] Turing’s original test was based on the Imitation Game, requiring only that a computer be at least as good as a man in formulating responses ...

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