1. Karman vortex vibration. Since the fluid flows over the outside surface and forms a vortex behind the structure, an alternating periodic excitation force is applied to the structure to cause a periodic vibration when the vortex sheds from two sides alternately. This vibration is called a Karman vortex (also called vortex shedding) vibration. Wind-induced vibration of transmission lines falls into this type.

2. Stalling flutter. Stalling flutter is a self-excited vibration, which often happens to the wings of airplane. It happens because of the torsional vibration and horizontal vibration of the wings when the air flows across the plane wing at a high speed. In stalling flutter, the powerful aerodynamic force has been compared to the vibration-restoring ...

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