Chapter 22. Chemical Analysis
W.G. Cummings and I. Verhappen

22.1. Introduction to Chemical Analysis

In the early 20th century, analytical chemistry depended almost entirely on measurements made gravimetrically and by titrimetry, and students were taught that the essential steps in the process were sampling, elimination of interfering substances, the actual measurement of the species of concern, and finally, the interpretation of results. Each step required care, and often substances were analyzed completely so that the components could be checked to total to within an acceptable reach of 100 percent.
Classical analytical methods are still used from time to time, generally for calibrating instruments, but during the past 40 years, the ...

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