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Integrated Marketing Communication: Pentacom, 4/e, 4th Edition

Book Description

Integrated Marketing Communication: Pentacom is a unique and comprehensive book on integrated communication. The title of the book includes the word 'Pentacom' as it focuses on five major categories of communications (B-to-C, B-to-B, internal, financial and corporate communication). It also enables readers to understand and implement communication strategies targeted at five major targets, such as consumers, business customers and clients, employees, shareholders, and public authorities. Finally it has been tailored for five potential types of players, such as consumer goods manufacturers, industrial goods companies, local authorities, public administration and services, as well as non-governmental and non-profit organizations. This book is designed for students in business schools and universities pursuing courses in management and mass media or communication. Its application-oriented approach, allows the book to serve as a very useful guide for practicing managers who desire to make their communications with different targets in different contexts more effective.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title page
  3. Contents
  4. About the Authors
  5. Preface
  6. Part I: Fundamentals and Techniques of Communications
    1. 1. Corporate and Organizational Communication Theories
      1. 1.1 Fundamental Communication Theories
        1. 1.1.1 Media Communication
        2. 1.1.2 Interpersonal Communication
        3. 1.1.3 Analyzing the Communication Process
        4. 1.1.4 An Overview of Different Communication Theories
      2. 1.2 Firm and Communication
        1. 1.2.1 Attention and Perception Theories
        2. 1.2.2 Persuasive Communication
        3. 1.2.3 Other Persuasive Communication Models
      3. Summary
      4. Activities
      5. Questions and Exercises
      6. Case Study
      7. Bibliography
    2. 2. The Communication Plan
      1. 2.1 The Role of the Communication Plan
        1. 2.1.1 What is the Role and Purpose of the Communication Plan?
        2. 2.1.2 Communication Plan Objectives
        3. 2.1.3 The Different Types of Communication Plans
          1. a) Who is the Plan for?
          2. b) The Geographic Dimension
          3. c) Expected Lifetime of the Plan
      2. 2.2 Designing the Communication Plan
        1. 2.2.1 The Overall Strategic Goals of the Communication Source, the Foundation of the Communication Strategy
        2. 2.2.2 Defining Strategic Communication Objectives
        3. 2.2.3 Determining Communication Targets or Stakeholders
          1. a) Choosing the Targets of the Communication Strategy
          2. b) Analyzing Communication Targets
        4. 2.2.4 Determining Who is Involved in the Communication Process
        5. 2.2.5 Defining the Message
        6. 2.2.6 The Communication Mix
        7. 2.2.7 Planning the Communication Strategy
        8. 2.2.8 The Communication Strategy Budget
          1. a) Budgeting for Human Resources
          2. b) Defining the Communication Budget
      3. 2.3 Managing the Communication Plan
        1. 2.3.1 Centralized Management of Communication
        2. 2.3.2 When Communication is Managed by Individual Departments
        3. 2.3.3 Managing Communication within a Project-based Organization
      4. 2.4 Measuring the Effectiveness of the Communication Strategy
        1. 2.4.1 Quantitative and Qualitative Indicators
        2. 2.4.2 Indicators for Evaluating Operational Implementation
        3. 2.4.3 Pre-tests
        4. 2.4.4 Post-tests
        5. 2.4.5 The in-house Survey
        6. 2.4.6 The Image Barometer
        7. 2.4.7 Other Indicators for Measuring the Effectiveness of a Communication Strategy
      5. Summary
      6. Activities
      7. Questions and Exercises
      8. Case Study
      9. Bibliography
    3. 3. Advertising Media
      1. 3.1 The Advertiser’s Brief
      2. 3.2 Creating an Advertisement
        1. 3.2.1 The Creative Brief and Creative Platforms
          1. a) Creative Platform Based on the Company’s Offering
          2. b) Brand-based Creative Platforms
          3. c) Identifying an Original Advertising Style: Disruption by the Advertising Agency, BDDP Group
          4. d) Current Creative Trends
        2. 3.2.2 Creation and Production of Advertising Messages
          1. a) Creative Discourse and Register
          2. b) The Creative Project
          3. c) Producing the Message
      3. 3.3 Media-planning
        1. 3.3.1 Definition
        2. 3.3.2 Media Planning: Choosing the Right Media Format
          1. a) The Elimination of Certain Media from the Start
          2. b) Evaluating Possible Media
        3. 3.3.3 Support Planning
          1. a) Quantitative Criteria for Selecting Media Vehicles
          2. b) Qualitative Criteria Used to Select Media Vehicles
        4. 3.3.4 Defining How Different Media Vehicles are Used
        5. 3.3.5 Final Definition of the Media Plan
          1. a) Optimizing the Media Plan
          2. b) Comparing Possible Media Plans
          3. c) Computerization of Media Plans
      4. Summary
      5. Activities
      6. Questions and Exercices
      7. Case Study
      8. Bibliography
    4. 4. Direct Communication
      1. 4.1 The Basis of Direct Marketing
        1. 4.1.1 What is Direct Marketing?
        2. 4.1.2 Direct Marketing Goals
      2. 4.2 Customer Databases: The Basis of Direct Marketing
      3. 4.3 Creating a Database and Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
        1. 4.3.1 Constructing a Database
        2. 4.3.2 Managing Customer Relations
          1. a) Customer Loyalty Cards
          2. b) Shopper Clubs
          3. c) Customer Service
          4. d) Websites
          5. e) Newsletter
          6. f) Brand-specific Consumer Magazines
      4. 4.4 The Media and Direct Marketing
        1. 4.4.1 Direct Marketing Techniques and Tools
          1. a) Direct Mail
          2. b) Unaddressed Admail or Direct Mail
          3. c) Telemarketing
          4. d) Mobile Marketing
          5. e) Internet
          6. f) Third Party Inserts
        2. 4.4.2 Mass Media as a Vehicle for Direct Marketing
          1. a) The Press
          2. b) Direct Response TV Marketing or DRTV
          3. c) The Radio
        3. 4.4.3 The Combination of Different Media
      5. 4.5 Creating a Strong Direct Marketing Message
        1. 4.5.1 Creating a Press Advertisement
        2. 4.5.2 Creating a TV or Radio Advertisement
      6. 4.6 Measuring the Impact of a Direct Marketing Campaign
      7. Summary
      8. Activities
      9. Questions and Exercises
      10. Case Study
      11. Bibliography
    5. 5. e-Advertising and Digital Communication
      1. 5.1 Internet: A Communications Media in Its Own Right
      2. 5.2 Internet: In-depth Changes
      3. 5.3 Internet: Lasting Changes
        1. 5.3.1 Behavior of Generation Y
        2. 5.3.2 Content Sharing Platforms
        3. 5.3.3 Increasingly Mobile and Inter-operable Terminals
      4. 5.4 An Absolute Necessity: Being Seen!
        1. 5.4.1 Search Engine Optimization (SEO)
        2. 5.4.2 Paid Positioning or Search Engine Marketing (SEM)
        3. 5.4.3 Social Media Platforms
        4. 5.4.4 Affiliation
        5. 5.4.5 e-Advertising
          1. a) The Advertising Banner
          2. b) The Advertising Formats Designed for Mobile Phones
          3. c) Buzz Marketing
          4. d) e-Mailing Campaigns
      5. 5.5 Online Advertising Payment Modes
      6. 5.6 The Road Ahead
      7. Summary
      8. Activities
      9. Questions and Exercises
      10. Case Study
      11. Bibliography
    6. 6. Sales Promotion
      1. 6.1 Advertising and Sales Promotion: A Complementary Relationship
        1. 6.1.1 Complementary Nature of Push and Pull Techniques
        2. 6.1.2 Balancing Sell-in and Sell-out Techniques
        3. 6.1.3 The Growing Confusion Between Advertising and Promotion
          1. a) Using Media to Present a Sales Promotion
          2. b) Using Advertising for Sales Promotion Events
      2. 6.2 Consumer Sales Promotions
        1. 6.2.1 Objectives and Main Techniques
        2. 6.2.2 Sales with Bonuses
          1. a) The Price Pack Deal or Bonus
          2. b) On-pack bonuses
          3. c) In-pack Bonus
          4. d) Near-pack Bonus
          5. e) Re-usable packaging
          6. f) Deferred Bonuses
        3. 6.2.3 Games and Contests
        4. 6.2.4 Price Discounts
          1. a) Immediate Discounts
          2. b) Deferred Rebates: Coupons
        5. 6.2.5 Trial Offers and Free Samples
        6. 6.2.6 Operations Related to Specific Charitable or Social Causes
        7. 6.2.7 Measuring the Effectiveness of Promotional Operations
          1. a) Influence on Image
          2. b) Influence on Sales
          3. c) Choosing Promotional Techniques
      3. Summary
      4. Activities
      5. Questions and Exercises
      6. Case Study
      7. Bibliography
    7. 7. Event Communications Sponsoring, Patronage and Sponsorship
      1. 7.1 Objectives of Event Communication
      2. 7.2 Main Events Used
        1. 7.2.1 Sport
          1. a) Sports Classification
          2. b) The Different Investment Methods in Sporting Events
        2. 7.2.2 Culture
        3. 7.2.3 Television Shows
        4. 7.2.4 Video Clips, Movies and Television Films
        5. 7.2.5 The Environment
        6. 7.2.6 Social and Humanitarian Causes
        7. 7.2.7 Scientific, Medical and Technical Research
      3. 7.3 Choice and Implementation
        1. 7.3.1 Risks to Avoid
        2. 7.3.2 Choosing the Event
      4. 7.4 Operating the Event and Measuring the Benefits
        1. 7.4.1 Operating the Event
        2. 7.4.2 Analyzing Event Communication Actions
      5. Summary
      6. Activities
      7. Questions and Exercises
      8. Case study
      9. Bibliography
    8. 8. Public Relations, Press Relations and Lobbying
      1. 8.1 Public Relations (PR)
        1. 8.1.1 Definition and Objectives of Public Relations
        2. 8.1.2 Two Types of Public Relations Targets
          1. a) Public Relations and Direct Targets
          2. b) Public Relations and Intermediary Targets
        3. 8.1.3 Public Relations Techniques
        4. 8.1.4 Evaluating the Effectiveness of Public Relations
      2. 8.2 Press Relations
        1. 8.2.1 The Framework of Press Relations
        2. 8.2.2 Traditional Press Relations Tools
          1. a) The Press Release
          2. b) The Press Dossier
          3. c) The Press Conference
        3. 8.2.3 Tailor-made Press Relations Tools
      3. 8.3 Lobbying
        1. 8.3.1 “Virtuous” and “Shameful” Lobbying
          1. a) “Virtuous” Lobbying
          2. b) “Shameful” Lobbying
        2. 8.3.2 The Objectives of a Lobbying Campaign
        3. 8.3.3 Business Lobbying Techniques
        4. 8.3.4 A Double, Complementary Target: Experts and Elected Representatives
          1. a) Experts
          2. b) Elected Representatives
        5. 8.3.5 The Risks and Limits of Lobbying
          1. a) The Limitations of Scientific Knowledge
          2. b) The Often Subjective Legitimacy of Lobbying
          3. c) The Risk of Confusing Private and Public Issues
          4. d) Lobbying for Rebuilding Contracts after a Military Conflict
          5. e) The Need for Ethical Lobbying Practices
      4. Summary
      5. Activities
      6. Questions and Exercises
      7. Case Study
      8. Bibliography
  7. Part II: Marketing Communications
    1. 9. Brand Image and Communications
      1. 9.1 Brand Policy
        1. 9.1.1 Development of the Concept of a Brand
          1. a) The Origins of the Brand
          2. b) The Latest Evolution of the Brand Concept
        2. 9.1.2 The Different Structures of Brand Policy
        3. 9.1.3 Strategic Issues: Brand Vision
      2. 9.2 The Brand and Its Mechanisms
        1. 9.2.1 Brand Awareness, a Quantitative Tool for Measuring Brand Effectiveness
        2. 9.2.2 Brand Image, a Qualitative Measuring Tool of the Brand
        3. 9.2.3 Earning Customer Loyalty
      3. 9.3 Brand Functions
        1. 9.3.1 Brand Functions for Companies
        2. 9.3.2 Brand Functions for Clients
          1. a) The Case of General Public Markets
          2. b) The Case of Professional Markets
      4. 9.4 Visibility and Coherence: Identity and Corporate Identity Code
        1. 9.4.1 The Logo’s Fundamental Role
        2. 9.4.2 The Role of Signatures or Base Lines
        3. 9.4.3 Jingles
        4. 9.4.4 The Corporate Identity Code
      5. 9.5 Tools for Optimizing Brand Communications
        1. 9.5.1 Brand Extension
        2. 9.5.2 Co-Branding
          1. a) Horizontal and Vertical Co-Branding
          2. b) Conceptual Co-Branding
          3. c) The Extent of Co-Branding
          4. d) Symbolic and Ingredient Co-Branding Strategies
          5. e) Cause-Co-Branding (CCB)
        3. 9.5.3 The Need to Create a New Brand
          1. a) The Conditions for Creating a Brand
          2. b) Required Qualities for a New Brand
          3. c) The Brand Creation Process
      6. Summary
      7. Activities
      8. Questions and Exercises
      9. Case Study
      10. Bibliography
    2. 10. B-to-C Communication: Recent Targets and New Trends
      1. 10.1 Generational Communication
        1. 10.1.1 The Child as Recommender
          1. a) The Objectives of Communication Aimed at Children
          2. b) A Favorable Context
          3. c) The Risks and Limitations of Communication Targeting Children
        2. 10.1.2 Targeting Senior Citizens
          1. a) The Demographic Context
          2. b) The Specific Characteristics of the Senior Target
          3. c) The Conditions for Success of a Senior Communication Campaign
          4. d) Senior Communication: Risks and Limits
      2. 10.2 Ethnic Communication
        1. 10.2.1 The Origins of Ethnic Communication
        2. 10.2.2 The Ethnic Target: Diverse Profiles
        3. 10.2.3 The Objectives of Ethnic Communication
        4. 10.2.4 Types of Ethnic Communication
        5. 10.2.5 The Risks and Limits of Ethnic Communication
      3. 10.3 Sensuality and Communication
        1. 10.3.1 The Objectives
        2. 10.3.2 The Different Possible Approaches
          1. a) Beauty and Aesthetic
          2. b) Sensuality
          3. c) Sensuality and Its New Codes
        3. 10.3.3 Coherence Varying with Category of Product
        4. 10.3.4 A Variable Level of Acceptance According to Support Used
      4. 10.4 Humor in Communication
        1. 10.4.1 The Objectives
        2. 10.4.2 Different Types of Humor
          1. a) By Technique Used
          2. b) By Target Profile
          3. c) By the Object Concerned
      5. 10.5 The Anti-communication Movements
        1. 10.5.1 The Origins and Objectives of Anti-communication Movements
        2. 10.5.2 Opposition Activities
      6. Summary
      7. Activities
      8. Questions and Exercises
      9. Case Study
      10. Bibliography
    3. 11. B-to-B Communication: Main Characteristics and Techniques
      1. 11.1 Sector and Derived Demand
        1. 11.1.1 Different B-to-B Segments
        2. 11.1.2 Derived Demand
        3. 11.1.3 Dependence Relative to Derived Demand
        4. 11.1.4 A Potentially Multi-tiered Marketing Strategy
      2. 11.2 The Importance of Customized Communication
        1. 11.2.1 Example of LYCRA®/Dim
          1. a) First Target: Manufacturers from Reel Producers to Hosiery Manufacturers
          2. b) Second Target: Distributors
          3. c) Third Target: Consumers
        2. 11.2.2 Buying Center Components
          1. a) Recommenders
          2. b) Users
          3. c) Buyers
          4. d) Decision-makers
        3. 11.2.3 Why Customer Relationship Management is Important?
          1. a) The Different Players Involved
          2. b) Different Buying Phases
          3. c) The Buying Situation or Negotiation Scenario
      3. 11.3 Trade Shows
        1. 11.3.1 Specific Characteristics of Trade Shows
        2. 11.3.2 Why Companies Participate in Trade Shows?
        3. 11.3.3 Steps for Participating in a Trade Show
          1. a) Before the Show
          2. b) During the Show
          3. c) After the Show
      4. 11.4 The Trade Press
        1. 11.4.1 Main Characteristics
          1. a) Horizontal Publications
          2. b) Vertical Publications
        2. 11.4.2 Means and Tools
      5. 11.5 Brochures, Catalogues and Technical Documents
        1. 11.5.1 The Company Brochure
        2. 11.5.2 Catalogues: “Second Degree” Marketing
        3. 11.5.3 Technical Documents
        4. 11.5.4 CD-ROMs and DVDs
      6. Summary
      7. Activities
      8. Questions and Exercices
      9. Case Study
      10. Bibliography
    4. 12. International Communication
      1. 12.1 National Context and International Communication
        1. 12.1.1 Impact of the Socio-cultural Environment
        2. 12.1.2 Impact of the Legal Context
        3. 12.1.3 Impact of the Media Context
      2. 12.2 Different International Communication Strategies
        1. 12.2.1 An Adapted or Country-specific International Communication Strategy
          1. a) Advantages of an Adapted Strategy
          2. b) Disadvantages of an Adapted Strategy
        2. 12.2.2 Standardized International Communication
          1. a) Different Types of Standardized International Communication Strategies
          2. b) Advantages of a Standardized Strategy
          3. c) Risks of a Standardized Strategy
        3. 12.2.3 Intermediary International Communication Strategies
          1. a) Advantages of a Standardized Positioning Strategy
          2. b) Disadvantages of a Standardized Positioning Strategy
      3. Summary
      4. Activities
      5. Questions and Exercices
      6. Case Study
      7. Bibliography
  8. Part III: Communications for Corporations and Organizations
    1. 13. Corporate Communication: Environmental Protection and Sustainable Development
      1. 13.1 Corporate or Institutional Communication
        1. 13.1.1 Objectives
          1. a) A Role of Support for Other More Operational Forms of Communication
          2. b) A Role of Information of Transverse Projects
          3. c) A Role of Crisis Anticipation
          4. d) A Role of Coordination of the Other Forms of Communication of the Company
        2. 13.1.2 Targets
        3. 13.1.3 Tools
      2. 13.2 The Development of New Requirements
        1. 13.2.1 A Reaction Against Industrial Abuses
        2. 13.2.2 The Progressive Acceptance of New Constraints by Companies
      3. 13.3 The Change of Direction Towards Sustainable Development
        1. 13.3.1 The Company, a Major Actor of Change
        2. 13.3.2 Sustainable Development to Reconcile Idealism and Economic Realism
      4. 13.4 Ethics and Its Implications for Communication
        1. 13.4.1 Towards Employees
        2. 13.4.2 Towards Suppliers
        3. 13.4.3 Towards Customers
          1. a) Business Customers
          2. b) Consumers
        4. 13.4.4 Use of Ethics by Shareholders
      5. 13.5 The Environment
        1. 13.5.1 Towards Customers
        2. 13.5.2 For the Company’s Functioning
        3. 13.5.3 Towards Employees
        4. 13.5.4 Towards Environmental Foundations
        5. 13.5.5 Towards Standardization Organizations
      6. 13.6 Implications of Sustainable Development in Terms of Communication
        1. 13.6.1 Main Recommendations
          1. a) Global Need for Coherence
          2. b) Act Before Communicating
          3. c) Modest Communication
          4. d) Choice of Suitable Communication Tools
        2. 13.6.2 Main Axes of Communication Around Sustainable Development
          1. a) On the Product/Service Level
          2. b) On the Level of Installations
          3. c) On the Organizational Level
          4. d) On the Level of Opinion Leaders
          5. e) On the Level of Support for Great Causes
      7. Summary
      8. Activities
      9. Questions and Exercises
      10. Case Study
      11. Bibliography
    2. 14. Financial Communication
      1. 14.1 Financial Information: A Legal and On-going Requirement
        1. 14.1.1 Required Periodic Information
          1. a) Information Concerning Yearly Accounts
          2. b) Accounting Information Concerning Half-yearly Accounts
          3. c) Quarterly Accounting Information
        2. 14.1.2 The General Shareholders’ Meeting
        3. 14.1.3 The Annual Report
          1. a) General Characteristics
          2. b) The Objectives of the Annual Report
          3. c) The Contents of the Annual Report
      2. 14.2 Financial Communication Policies
        1. 14.2.1 Choosing Financial Targets
          1. a) The Recommanders or Influencers
          2. b) The Bullseye
          3. c) The Official Authorities
          4. d) Peripheral Targets
        2. 14.2.2 The Website: A Useful Complement to Financial Communication
          1. a) Targets
          2. b) Objectives
          3. c) Financial Website Performance Measurements
        3. 14.2.3 Other Financial Communication Tools
          1. a) Shareholder Relationship Management
          2. b) Direct Marketing
          3. c) Roadshows
        4. 14.2.4 Communicating About an IPO or Initial Public Offering or a Capital Increase
          1. a) Main Strategies
          2. b) Special Situations
        5. 14.2.5 Communicating About a Takeover Bid/Public Exchange Offer
          1. a) Takeover Bids
          2. b) Public Exchange Offers
          3. c) Mixed Takeover Bids and Public Exchange Offers
          4. d) A Communication Approach for Takeover Bids
          5. e) The Communication Strategy of the Target of a Hostile Takeover
        6. 14.2.6 Communication to Improve the Visibility and Circulation of the Share
          1. a) Communicating About a Share’s New Name
          2. b) Communicating About a Change in the Nominal Share Value
          3. c) A Communication Strategy to Gain Access to a Stock Market Index
        7. 14.2.7 Limits of Financial Communication
      3. Summary
      4. Activities
      5. Questions and Exercises
      6. Bibliography
    3. 15. Internal Communication
      1. 15.1 The Growth of Internal Communications
        1. 15.1.1 Internal Communications: Increasingly Professional
        2. 15.1.2 Internal Communications Objectives
          1. a) Informing
          2. b) Motivating
          3. c) Bringing Together
        3. 15.1.3 A Communications Strategy for a Redundancy Plan
          1. a) The Legislative Context
          2. b) An Individualized Approach
          3. c) Internal and External Communication for the Redundancy Plan
      2. 15.2 Internal Communications Targets
        1. 15.2.1 Employees
        2. 15.2.2 Students and Future Employees
      3. 15.3 Internal Communications Techniques
        1. 15.3.1 Oral Communication
          1. a) The Individual Interview
          2. b) Information Meetings: Department Meetings, Interdepartmental Meetings
          3. c) Dialogue Meetings
          4. d) Net Meeting, Video Conference and Web Conferences
          5. e) Conventions and Seminars
        2. 15.3.2 Direct Communication
        3. 15.3.3 Media Communications
          1. a) The Company Magazine
          2. b) Audiovisual Media
          3. c) Electronic Media
          4. d) The Newsletter
          5. e) Special Events
      4. Summary
      5. Activities
      6. Questions and Exercises
      7. Case Study
      8. Bibliography
    4. 16. Crisis Communication
      1. 16.1 Different Types of Crisis Situations
        1. 16.1.1 Classifying Different Crisis Situations
        2. 16.1.2 Company/Media Balance of Power During a Crisis
      2. 16.2 Anticipating the Crisis Upstream
        1. 16.2.1 Internal Communication: Know Your Weaknesses
        2. 16.2.2 Forming a Preventive Crisis Unit
        3. 16.2.3 Anticipating Media Expectations
        4. 16.2.4 Creating a Trust-based Relationship with the Media
        5. 16.2.5 Training Internal Spokespeople
      3. 16.3 Crisis Management During an Incident
        1. 16.3.1 Implementing a Defense Strategy
          1. a) Avoiding Certain Mistakes
          2. b) Winning Strategies
          3. c) The Content and Form of Messages
        2. 16.3.2 Occupying Media Space
          1. a) Acknowledging the Problem
          2. b) Communicating in a Measured Way
          3. c) Show that the Crisis is Being Handled
          4. d) Manage the Flow of Information and Occupy Media Space
          5. e) Encouraging Media Access to Information
          6. f) Preparing for Interactions with the Media
        3. 16.3.3 Managing the Media to Meet Different Expectations
          1. a) Media Chronology
          2. b) Focusing on the Internal Targets
          3. c) External Targets
      4. 16.4 Feedback after the Crisis
        1. 16.4.1 Learning from the Crisis Relative to Internal Targets
          1. a) Ensuring that a Similar Crisis is not Repeated
          2. b) Improving Internal Procedures
          3. c) Re-motivating and Remobilizing Internal Resources
        2. 16.4.2 Making the Most out the Crisis Relative to External Targets
          1. a) When the Crisis is External in Origin
          2. b) When the Crisis is Internal in Origin
      5. Summary
      6. Activities
      7. Questions and Exercises
      8. Case Studies
      9. Bibliography
    5. 17. Communication for Public Services and Local Authorities
      1. 17.1 Public Services Communication: From Culture to Defense
        1. 17.1.1 The Specific Characteristics of Cultural Organizations
          1. a) Targeting Customers Downstream
          2. b) Targeting Sponsors Upstream
        2. 17.1.2 The Health Sector
          1. a) Health Institutions
          2. b) Health Department Prevention Campaigns
        3. 17.1.3 The Defense Sector
          1. a) A Gloomy Start
          2. b) Military Communication Objectives During a Conflict
          3. c) Other Military Communication Objectives
      2. 17.2 Communication Approaches for Local Public Authorities
        1. 17.2.1 The Specific Characteristics of Communication Strategies Used by Local Public Authorities
          1. a) Country, District, County, Town: Very Different Actors
          2. b) Well-identified Objectives and Targets
        2. 17.2.2 Tourist Communication for a Territory
          1. a) An Increasingly Competitive Context
          2. b) Tourism: Development Factors
          3. c) The Main Obstacles to the Development of Tourism
          4. d) The Different Objectives of Tourism Communication
          5. e) The Main Supports of Tourism Communication
        3. 17.2.3 Civic Communication
          1. a) The Target
          2. b) The Objectives
          3. c) Civic Communication Vehicles
        4. 17.2.4 The Economic Communication of a Region, City, or Country
          1. a) The Goals of Economic Communication
          2. b) The Economic Arguments of a Region
          3. c) Economic Development Communication Tools
        5. 17.2.5 Communication Approaches for a Major ‘One-off’ Project
      3. Summary
      4. Activities
      5. Questions and Exercises
      6. Case Study
      7. Bibliography
  9. Acknowledgements
  10. Copyright
  11. Back Cover