12.1 Introduction

The multiple research phases described in this book (Becerril, Rebentisch, Chucholowski, Conforto, & Lindemann, 2016; Conforto, Rebentisch, & Rossi, 2013; Conforto, Rossi, Rebentisch, Oehmen, & Pacenza, 2013; Rebentisch & Conforto, 2014; Reiner, 2015) found consistent evidence of the positive impact and contribution of greater integration to program performance. Program performance is vital to most organizations since it directly impacts the organization's ability to generate business value. It spans multiple dimensions and metrics from technical performance to program benefits. The evidence supports the claim that organizations should embrace integration as a catalyst for improving program performance.

Program performance is a broad concept and there is a vast body of literature regarding the type and use of metrics to monitor and control performance. Organizations typically develop their own set of metrics according to the organization's specific business characteristics (e.g., industry sector, type of product, program environment). Organizations would also benefit from developing a means to track and improve integration and to measure how integration is contributing to improving the outcomes and results of a given program. In this chapter the main focus is on how effective integration (and its three main elements) impacts program performance. The first step is to understand program performance itself. ...

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