The factors that lead to better integration between program management and systems engineering may not all be within the influence of a specific program or organization. The book concludes with a discussion in Chapter 16 of factors that should be addressed beyond the immediate organization or program to improve integration. While summarizing key points in the book, Chapter 16 is forward‐looking with a discussion of the implications of the overall message of increasing integration across a range of stakeholders, both within the organization and in the larger societal context.
The afterword represents an admonition to individual practitioners to reflect on the key messages of this book, identify a plan of action, and take action to create better integration between program management and systems engineering in their own sphere of influence. It also reflects upon some of the insights gained during the creation of this book and discusses some of those insights with a view toward future efforts to advance the knowledge and practice of integration.