Chapter 9: Fleet Management at Scale

The Internet of things (IoT) had a humble beginning in 1999, in Procter & Gamble, when Kevin Ashton introduced the idea of integrating a radio-frequency identification (RFID) antenna into lipstick shelves to enable branch managers to better track cosmetic inventories for replenishments. Since then, this technology has been adopted across all industry segments in some form or another and has become ubiquitous in today's world.

Managing a set of RFID tags, sensors, and actuators inside a known physical boundary is a relatively easy task. However, managing millions (or billions or trillions) of these devices globally throughout their lifecycle is not. Especially when these devices are spread across different ...

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