Chapter 8


  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 Qualitative and Quantitative
  • 8.3 Simple Quantitative Analysis
  • 8.4 Simple Qualitative Analysis
  • 8.5 Tools to Support Data Analysis
  • 8.6 Using Theoretical Frameworks
  • 8.7 Presenting the Findings


The main aims of this chapter are to:

  • Discuss the difference between qualitative and quantitative data and analysis.
  • Enable you to analyze data gathered from questionnaires.
  • Enable you to analyze data gathered from interviews.
  • Enable you to analyze data gathered from observation studies.
  • Make you aware of software packages that are available to help your analysis.
  • Identify some of the common pitfalls in data analysis, interpretation, and presentation.
  • Enable you to be able to interpret and present your findings in a meaningful and appropriate manner.

8.1 Introduction

The kind of analysis that can be performed on a set of data will be influenced by the goals identified at the outset, and the data actually gathered. Broadly speaking, you may take a qualitative analysis approach or a quantitative analysis approach, or a combination of qualitative and quantitative. The last of these is very common as it provides a more comprehensive account of the behavior being observed or performance being measured.

Most analysis, whether it is quantitative or qualitative, begins with initial reactions or observations from the data. This might involve identifying patterns or calculating simple numerical values such ...

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