Chapter 20

Smart Grid

20.1 Introduction

The power grid is the electrical network delivering electricity to houses, offices, and industrial users. As shown in Figure 20.1, electricity is produced by plants (nuclear, coal, solar, geothermal, wind) and transported through a hierarchical power grid network where electricity flows from power generation sources to homes after a succession of voltage transformations performed by substations. Electricity is generated and transported over long distances at high voltage (between 110 and 400 kV) to reduce line loss. The line voltage is then stepped down by transformers located in a primary substation (typically to 40–60 kV) until it reaches pole top transformers (United States) or a secondary substation (Europe) ...

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