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Intermolecular and Surface Forces, 3rd Edition by Jacob N. Israelachvili

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3 Strong Intermolecular Forces: Covalent and Coulomb Interactions

3.1 Covalent or Chemical Bonding Forces

Like two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom that combine to form a water molecule, when two or more atoms come together to form a molecule, the forces that tightly bind the atoms together within the molecule are called covalent forces, and the interatomic bonds formed are called covalent or chemical bonds. Closely allied to covalent bonds are metallic bonds. In both cases the bonds are characterized by the sharing of the electrons between the two or more atoms so that the discrete nature of the atoms is lost.

Depending on the position an atom (or element) occupies in the periodic table, it can participate in a certain number of covalent ...

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