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Intermolecular and Surface Forces, 3rd Edition by Jacob N. Israelachvili

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21 Interactions of Biological Membranes and Structures

The interactions of biomolecular assemblies are generally far more complex than can be described by just one or two of the potentials or force functions shown in Figure 21.1. In this chapter we shall first review some of the forces already considered in Part II, but now focusing on how they arise in complex fluid and biological systems. We shall also see how these nonspecific interactions combine to give rise to highly specific ones, and how they act together in regulating the organization and morphologies of biological structures. Given that biological systems are living systems, their interactions are never at equilibrium, even in the steady state where a constant supply of energy is required. ...

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