Chapter 2. Names and Numbers

Hostnames, and the numeric addresses they correspond to, are the way to identify computers on the Internet. Understanding how these names and numbers are managed is therefore a fundamental aspect of Internet forensics. This chapter describes the types of information you can obtain from public databases of Internet addresses and discusses three essential tools that can help you identify machines and the people behind them. I’ll start with a short review of how computers are identified on the Internet.

Addresses on the Internet

Each computer on the Internet has a unique identifier in the form of its Internet Protocol (IP) address. This is a 32-bit integer, which we normally represent as four 8-bit integers separated by periods, such as

Numeric addresses are fine for systems administrators who need to set up networks and who like that sort of thing. But for most people, they are impossible to remember and so we have real names for computers, the hostnames that we are all familiar with, such as

The translation between hostnames and IP addresses is handled by the Domain Name System (DNS). For example, when you type a hostname into a browser as part of a URL, the browser converts the name into the corresponding IP address and then uses that to communicate with the web server. The browser queries a DNS server on the network, which looks up the name in its database and returns the numeric address to the browser.

In its simplest ...

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