The Internet of Things (IoT) is defined as a collection of physical objects (i.e., “things”) and their interconnected communication networks that allow the physical objects to gather, store, process, and exchange information. Importantly, the physical objects can be almost anything, from the smallest devices or products to the largest systems. In the most general form, the IoT is a world where everything and everyone is connected together (Figure 9.1). Additionally, the physical objects may also make decisions about the amassed, processed, and exchanged information, as well as take actions to control the physical objects and the environment in which they are embedded. The capabilities that enable the physical objects to participate in the IoT are usually composed of an assemblage of different types of advanced technologies including electronics, sensors, actuators, and software. These capabilities are either connected to or integrated into conventional products and systems, such as vehicles; appliances; heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems (HVAC); consumer electronics; entertainment systems; security systems; power generators; medical devices; sports and recreation equipment; commercial building controls; tools; industrial manufacturing equipment; health monitoring devices; etc.