6A Tutorial Introduction to IoT Design and Prototyping with Examples

Manuel Meruje,1 Musa Gwani Samaila,1,2 Virginia N. L. Franqueira,3 Mário Marques Freire,1 and Pedro Ricardo Morais Inácio1

1Instituto de Telecomunicações and Department of Computer Science, Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal

2Centre for Geodesy and Geodynamics, National Space Research and Development Agency, Toro, Bauchi State, Nigeria

3Department of Electronics, Computing & Mathematics, University of Derby, Derby, UK

6.1 Introduction

The evolution of the Internet of Things (IoT) has brought about tremendous digital transformations in many different sectors of human endeavor, including, but not limited to, healthcare, transportation, power grid, manufacturing, and logistics (Haase et al., 2016). This has resulted partly from the fact that communication technologies, sensor technologies, and computer memory and processing power have become readily available and inexpensive (Javed et al., 2016) such that manufacturers of consumer products can afford to put them on a wide range of products (McEwen and Cassimally, 2014). Over the years, the ubiquity of the aforementioned technologies has transformed the semiconductor industry by creating the enabling environments that facilitate chip development and manufacturing. Today, despite the twilight of Moore's law, chipmakers are still racing to develop smaller, smarter, less expensive, and more energy-efficient chips (DeBenedictis, 2017; James, 2016; Lentine ...

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