The ﬁrst layer of the four-layer architecture deals with network things like actuators and sensors.
The second layer deals with the aggregation of sensor data and the data conversion. The third
layer is concerned with the preprocessing of the data by the edge IT systems. Lastly, the fourth
layer focuses on how data is managed, analyzed, and saved through conventional data centers.
Today, IoT is used for a wide array of applications
in education, healthcare, manufacturing, ﬁnance,
retail, supply chain, and other industries. Thus, it
should come as no surprise that businesses are
aggressively integrating IoT solutions into their
Deciding to use IoT is one thing; successfully
implementing it is a whole dierent ball game.
This is because there are several factors at play.
Therefore, it is necessary that you must have a
reliable architecture, which can help you to suc-
cessfully implement IoT applications. Following
are some of the types of IoT architecture.
After completing this chapter, you will be able to:
• Learn various architectural patterns for IoT
• Understand the difference between four layer-and seven-layer
• Learn about fog computing and its advantages,
• Learn open stack cloud architecture
• Learn about Hadoop and see how it is useful in IoT
• Understand problems with IoT Streaming Ingestion
• Learn how to manage bad data and ﬁrmware multicity
• Learn enhancing data in stream and processing data at scale, and
• Learn Pattern 2 (Batch-Oriented Data Transfer)
Internet_of_Things_CH04_pp081-104.indd 81 9/3/2019 10:13:30 AM