Objectives

In this appendix, you’ll:

• Learn basic number systems concepts such as base, positional value and symbol value.

• Work with numbers represented in the binary, octal and hexadecimal number systems

• Abbreviate binary numbers as octal numbers or hexadecimal numbers.

• Convert octal numbers and hexadecimal numbers to binary numbers.

• Convert back and forth between decimal numbers and their binary, octal and hexadecimal equivalents.

• Learn binary arithmetic and how negative binary numbers are represented using two’s complement notation.

Outline

**E.2** Abbreviating Binary Numbers as Octal and Hexadecimal Numbers

**E.3** Converting Octal and Hexadecimal Numbers to Binary Numbers

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