# Chapter 12 Hash Functions: Attacks and Applications

# 12.1 Birthday Attacks

If there are 23 people in a room, the probability is slightly more than 50% that two of them have the same birthday. If there are 30, the probability is around 70%. This might seem surprising; it is called the **birthday paradox**. Let’s see why it’s true. We’ll ignore leap years (which would slightly lower the probability of a match) and we assume that all birthdays are equally likely (if not, the probability of a match would be slightly higher).

Consider the case of 23 people. We’ll compute the probability that they all have different birthdays. Line them up in a row. The first person uses up one day, so the second person has probability $(1-1/365)$ of having a different birthday. ...

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