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# Mathematical Formulas

## C.1 Trigonometric Identities

1. sin ( −α) = −sin α
2. cos ( −α) = cos α
3. sin α = cos (α − 90°) = −cos (α + 90°)
4. cos α = −sin (α − 90°) = sin (α + 90°)
5. sin α = −sin (α ± 180°)
6. cos α = −cos (α ± 180°)
7. sin (α ± β) = sin α cos β ± cos α sin β
8. sin 2α = 2 sin α cos α
9. cos 2α = cos2α − sin2α
10. 2 sin α sin β = cos (αβ) − cos (α + β)
11. 2 sin α cos β = sin (α + β) + sin (αβ)
12. 2 cos α cos β = cos (α + β) + cos (αβ)
13. 2 sin2α = 1 − cos 2α
14. 2 cos2α = 1 + cos 2α
15. sin2α + cos2α = 1

## C.2 Derivatives

The letters u and v represent functions of x, whereas a, b, and m are constants.

## C.3 Indefinite Integrals

The letters u and v represent functions of x, whereas a and b are constants. ...

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