Chapter 8: Plug-In Charging Characteristics, Algorithm, and Impact on Power Distribution System
During the last decade, PHEVs and BEVs have been developed in the marketplace. In addition to sharing the characteristics of traditional HEVs with two power sources, a PHEV/BEV is capable of driving miles in the pure electric mode, and the battery system can be recharged by a plug-in charger connected to the electric grid. Some PHEV/BEVs with a large battery system even can power the vehicle more than 40 miles so that daily commuters can potentially drive exclusively with the electric motor. The distinctions between HEVs and PHEVs are the all-electric driving mode and the plug-in charging capability from the electric grid.
With PHEVs and BEVs entering the marketplace, existing electric grids and power distribution systems may be impacted. To minimize the impact and achieve lowest charging cost for PHEV owners, plug-in charging strategies must be systematically studied, taking into consideration not only the capabilities of the battery system and plug-in charger but also the capability of the electric grid. The most recent results and current trends of control system and power electronic technology show that developing an optimal or smart plug-in charging control strategy is a realistic goal. This chapter will briefly introduce the plug-in charging characteristics and the impacts on the electric grid and distribution system as well as plug-in charging strategies.