Appendix A Sums and Products

Suppose we have a given set of images real numbers images . The symbol

equation

is an abbreviation for the sum images . Often, and when no confusion arises, we simply write images . It is apparent that in the above notation, images is merely used as a symbol to indicate the starting (images ) and the final (images ) index in the summation and that in no way affects the value of the sum. Therefore, for instance,

equation

It is also clear that the range of indices in the summation could be any subset of images such ...

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