Appendix B

R

B.1 Vectors

Command

What it does

c(1,1,0,2.7,3.1)

creates the vector (1,1, 0, 2.7, 3.1)

1:100

creates the vector (1, 2,... , 100)

(1:100)^3

creates the vector (13, 23,. .. , 1003)

rep(0,50)

creates the vector (0, 0,... , 0) of length 50

seq(0,99,3)

creates the vector (0, 3, 6, 9,... , 99)

v[5]

5th entry of vector v (index starts at 1)

v[-5]

all but the 5th entry of v

v[c(3,1,4)]

3rd, 1st, 4th entries of vector v

v[v>2]

entries of v that exceed 2

which(v>2)

indices of v such that entry exceeds 2

which(v==7)

indices of v such that entry equals 7

min(v)

minimum of v

max(v)

maximum of v

which.max(v)

indices where max(v) is achieved

sum(v)

sum of the entries in v

cumsum(v)

cumulative sums of the ...

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