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Ion Beam Treatment of Polymers, 2nd Edition by Marcela Bilek, Alexey Kondyurin

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2

Ion implanters

An ion beam source generates a flux of ions with high energy, which is translated to high velocity in a low-pressure atmosphere, prior to impacting a surface to be ion-implanted. The history of ion beam sources began with Lord Ernest Rutherford’s experiments. With a view to applications, two kinds of industrial approaches are considered here: conventional beam line ion implanters and plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII). The effects of the dynamics the matrix sheath and the Child’s Law sheath in plasma immersion ion implantation are explained. Methods to eliminate problems with surface charging when treating the surfaces of insulators, such as the use of additional mesh electrodes, are examined. Methods of fluence measurement ...

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