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IoT Fundamentals: Networking Technologies, Protocols, and Use Cases for the Internet of Things

Book Description

Today, billions of devices are Internet-connected, IoT standards and protocols are stabilizing, and technical professionals must increasingly solve real problems with IoT technologies. Now, five leading Cisco IoT experts present the first comprehensive, practical reference for making IoT work. IoT Fundamentals brings together knowledge previously available only in white papers, standards documents, and other hard-to-find sources—or nowhere at all. The authors begin with a high-level overview of IoT and introduce key concepts needed to successfully design IoT solutions. Next, they walk through each key technology, protocol, and technical building block that combine into complete IoT solutions. Building on these essentials, they present several detailed use cases, including manufacturing, energy, utilities, smart+connected cities, transportation, mining, and public safety. Whatever your role or existing infrastructure, you’ll gain deep insight what IoT applications can do, and what it takes to deliver them.

  • Fully covers the principles and components of next-generation wireless networks built with Cisco IOT solutions such as IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi), IEEE 802.15.4-2015 (Mesh), and LoRaWAN

  • Brings together real-world tips, insights, and best practices for designing and implementing next-generation wireless networks

  • Presents start-to-finish configuration examples for common deployment scenarios

  • Reflects the extensive first-hand experience of Cisco experts

Table of Contents

  1. About This E-Book
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. About the Authors
  5. Chapter Contributors
  6. About the Technical Reviewers
  7. Dedications
  8. Acknowledgments
  9. Contents at a Glance
  10. Contents
  11. Reader Services
  12. Icons Used in This Book
  13. Command Syntax Conventions
  14. Foreword
  15. Introduction
    1. Who Should Read This Book?
    2. How This Book Is Organized
  16. Part I: Introduction to IoT
    1. Chapter 1. What Is IoT?
      1. Genesis of IoT
      2. IoT and Digitization
      3. IoT Impact
        1. Connected Roadways
        2. Connected Factory
        3. Smart Connected Buildings
        4. Smart Creatures
      4. Convergence of IT and OT
      5. IoT Challenges
      6. Summary
      7. References
    2. Chapter 2. IoT Network Architecture and Design
      1. Drivers Behind New Network Architectures
        1. Scale
        2. Security
        3. Constrained Devices and Networks
        4. Data
        5. Legacy Device Support
      2. Comparing IoT Architectures
        1. The oneM2M IoT Standardized Architecture
        2. The IoT World Forum (IoTWF) Standardized Architecture
        3. Additional IoT Reference Models
      3. A Simplified IoT Architecture
      4. The Core IoT Functional Stack
        1. Layer 1: Things: Sensors and Actuators Layer
        2. Layer 2: Communications Network Layer
        3. Layer 3: Applications and Analytics Layer
      5. IoT Data Management and Compute Stack
        1. Fog Computing
        2. Edge Computing
        3. The Hierarchy of Edge, Fog, and Cloud
      6. Summary
      7. References
  17. Part II: Engineering IoT Networks
    1. Chapter 3. Smart Objects: The “Things” in IoT
      1. Sensors, Actuators, and Smart Objects
        1. Sensors
        2. Actuators
        3. Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS)
        4. Smart Objects
      2. Sensor Networks
        1. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)
        2. Communication Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks
      3. Summary
    2. Chapter 4. Connecting Smart Objects
      1. Communications Criteria
        1. Range
        2. Frequency Bands
        3. Power Consumption
        4. Topology
        5. Constrained Devices
        6. Constrained-Node Networks
      2. IoT Access Technologies
        1. IEEE 802.15.4
        2. IEEE 802.15.4g and 802.15.4e
        3. IEEE 1901.2a
        4. IEEE 802.11ah
        5. LoRaWAN
        6. NB-IoT and Other LTE Variations
      3. Summary
    3. Chapter 5. IP as the IoT Network Layer
      1. The Business Case for IP
        1. The Key Advantages of Internet Protocol
        2. Adoption or Adaptation of the Internet Protocol
      2. The Need for Optimization
        1. Constrained Nodes
        2. Constrained Networks
        3. IP Versions
      3. Optimizing IP for IoT
        1. From 6LoWPAN to 6Lo
        2. Header Compression
        3. Fragmentation
        4. Mesh Addressing
        5. 6TiSCH
        6. RPL
        7. Authentication and Encryption on Constrained Nodes
      4. Profiles and Compliances
        1. Internet Protocol for Smart Objects (IPSO) Alliance
        2. Wi-SUN Alliance
        3. Thread
        4. IPv6 Ready Logo
      5. Summary
    4. Chapter 6. Application Protocols for IoT
      1. The Transport Layer
      2. IoT Application Transport Methods
        1. Application Layer Protocol Not Present
        2. SCADA
        3. Generic Web-Based Protocols
        4. IoT Application Layer Protocols
      3. Summary
    5. Chapter 7. Data and Analytics for IoT
      1. An Introduction to Data Analytics for IoT
        1. Structured Versus Unstructured Data
        2. Data in Motion Versus Data at Rest
        3. IoT Data Analytics Overview
        4. IoT Data Analytics Challenges
      2. Machine Learning
        1. Machine Learning Overview
        2. Machine Learning and Getting Intelligence from Big Data
        3. Predictive Analytics
      3. Big Data Analytics Tools and Technology
        1. Massively Parallel Processing Databases
        2. NoSQL Databases
        3. Hadoop
        4. The Hadoop Ecosystem
      4. Edge Streaming Analytics
        1. Comparing Big Data and Edge Analytics
        2. Edge Analytics Core Functions
        3. Distributed Analytics Systems
      5. Network Analytics
        1. Flexible NetFlow Architecture
      6. Summary
      7. References
    6. Chapter 8. Securing IoT
      1. A Brief History of OT Security
      2. Common Challenges in OT Security
        1. Erosion of Network Architecture
        2. Pervasive Legacy Systems
        3. Insecure Operational Protocols
        4. Other Protocols
        5. Device Insecurity
        6. Dependence on External Vendors
        7. Security Knowledge
      3. How IT and OT Security Practices and Systems Vary
        1. The Purdue Model for Control Hierarchy
        2. OT Network Characteristics Impacting Security
        3. Security Priorities: Integrity, Availability, and Confidentiality
        4. Security Focus
      4. Formal Risk Analysis Structures: OCTAVE and FAIR
        1. OCTAVE
        2. FAIR
      5. The Phased Application of Security in an Operational Environment
        1. Secured Network Infrastructure and Assets
        2. Deploying Dedicated Security Appliances
        3. Higher-Order Policy Convergence and Network Monitoring
      6. Summary
  18. Part III: IoT in Industry
    1. Chapter 9. Manufacturing
      1. An Introduction to Connected Manufacturing
        1. An IoT Strategy for Connected Manufacturing
        2. Business Improvements Driven Through IoT
      2. An Architecture for the Connected Factory
        1. Industrial Automation and Control Systems Reference Model
        2. The CPwE Reference Model
        3. CPwE Resilient Network Design
        4. CPwE Wireless
      3. Industrial Automation Control Protocols
        1. EtherNet/IP and CIP
        2. PROFINET
        3. The PROFINET Architecture
        4. Media Redundancy Protocol (MRP)
        5. Modbus/TCP
      4. Connected Factory Security
        1. A Holistic Approach to Industrial Security
      5. Edge Computing in the Connected Factory
        1. Connected Machines and Edge Computing
      6. Summary
      7. References
    2. Chapter 10. Oil and Gas
      1. An Introduction to the Oil and Gas Industry
        1. Defining Oil and Gas
        2. The Oil and Gas Value Chain
        3. Current Trends in the Oil and Gas Industry
      2. Industry Key Challenges as Digitization Drivers
        1. IoT and the Oil and Gas Industry
      3. Improving Operational Efficiency
        1. The Purdue Model for Control Hierarchy in Oil and Gas Networks
        2. Oil and Gas Use Cases for IoT
      4. IoT Architectures for Oil and Gas
        1. Control Room Networks for Oil and Gas
        2. Wired Networks for Oil and Gas
        3. Wireless Networks for Oil and Gas
        4. Wireless Use Cases in the Oil and Gas Industry
        5. The Risk Control Framework for Cybersecurity in IoT
        6. Securing the Oil and Gas PCN: Background
        7. Securing the Oil and Gas PCN: Use Cases and Requirements
        8. Data Analytics for Predictive Asset Monitoring
      5. Summary
      6. References
    3. Chapter 11. Utilities
      1. An Introduction to the Power Utility Industry
        1. The IT/OT Divide in Utilities
      2. The GridBlocks Reference Model
        1. GridBlocks: An 11-Tiered Reference Architecture
      3. The Primary Substation GridBlock and Substation Automation
        1. SCADA
        2. IEC 61850: The Modernization of Substation Communication Standards
        3. Network Resiliency Protocols in the Substation
      4. System Control GridBlock: The Substation WAN
        1. Defining Teleprotection
        2. Designing a WAN for Teleprotection
      5. The Field Area Network (FAN) GridBlock
        1. Advanced Metering Infrastructure
        2. Other Use Cases
      6. Securing the Smart Grid
        1. NERC CIP
        2. Smart Grid Security Considerations
      7. The Future of the Smart Grid
      8. Summary
      9. References
    4. Chapter 12. Smart and Connected Cities
      1. An IoT Strategy for Smarter Cities
        1. Vertical IoT Needs for Smarter Cities
        2. Global vs. Siloed Strategies
      2. Smart City IoT Architecture
        1. Street Layer
        2. City Layer
        3. Data Center Layer
        4. Services Layer
        5. On-Premises vs. Cloud
      3. Smart City Security Architecture
      4. Smart City Use-Case Examples
        1. Connected Street Lighting
        2. Smart Traffic Control
        3. Connected Environment
      5. Summary
      6. References
    5. Chapter 13. Transportation
      1. Transportation and Transports
      2. Transportation Challenges
        1. Roadways
        2. Mass Transit
        3. Rail
        4. Challenges for Transportation Operators and Users
      3. IoT Use Cases for Transportation
        1. Connected Cars
        2. Connected Fleets
        3. Infrastructure and Mass Transit
      4. An IoT Architecture for Transportation
        1. IoT Technologies for Roadways
        2. Connected Roadways Network Architecture
        3. Extending the Roadways IoT Architecture to Bus Mass Transit
        4. Extending Bus IoT Architecture to Railways
      5. Summary
      6. References
    6. Chapter 14. Mining
      1. Mining Today and Its Challenges
        1. Scale
        2. Safety
        3. Environment
        4. Security
        5. Volatile Markets
      2. Challenges for IoT in Modern Mining
        1. The OT Roles in Mining
        2. Connectivity
      3. An IoT Strategy for Mining
        1. Improved Safety and Location Services
        2. Location Services
        3. Improved Efficiencies
        4. Improved Collaboration
        5. IoT Security for Mining
      4. An Architecture for IoT in Mining
        1. IEEE 802.11 as the IoT Access Layer
        2. 802.11 Outdoor Wireless Mesh
        3. 4G/LTE
        4. Wireless in Underground Mining
        5. Industrial Wireless
        6. Isolated vs. Connected Mine Networks
        7. Core Network Connectivity
        8. Network Design Consideration for Mining Applications
        9. Data Processing
      5. Summary
    7. Chapter 15. Public Safety
      1. Overview of Public Safety
        1. Public Safety Objects and Exchanges
        2. Public and Private Partnership for Public Safety IoT
        3. Public Safety Adoption of Technology and the IoT
      2. An IoT Blueprint for Public Safety
        1. Mission Continuum
        2. Mission Fabric
        3. Inter-agency Collaboration
      3. Emergency Response IoT Architecture
        1. Mobile Command Center
        2. Mobile Vehicles: Land, Air, and Sea
      4. IoT Public Safety Information Processing
      5. School Bus Safety
        1. Bus Location and Student Onboarding/Offboarding
        2. Driver Behavior Reporting
        3. Diagnostic Reporting
        4. Video Surveillance
        5. Student Wi-Fi
        6. Push-to-Talk Communication
        7. School Bus Safety Network Architecture
      6. Summary
      7. Reference
  19. Index
  20. Code Snippets