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IP Addressing and Subnetting INC IPV6

Book Description

Internetworking Protocol (IP) addresses are the unique numeric identifiers required of every device connected to the Internet. They allow for the precise routing of data across very complex worldwide internetworks. The rules for their format and use are governed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) of the The Internet SOCiety (ISOC). In response to the exponential increase in demand for new IP addresses, the IETF has finalized its revision on IP addressing as IP Version 6, also know as IPng (ng = Next Generation). Key hardware vendors such as Cisco and major Internet Service Providers such as America Online have already announced plans to migrate to IP Version 6.
IP address allocation within an organization requires a lot of long-term planning. This timely publication addresses the administrator and engineer's need to know how IP 6 impacts their enterprise networks.
  • Easy-to-read, light technical approach to cellular technology
  • Ideal for companies planning a phased migration from IP 4 to IP 6
  • Timely publication: The IETF standard was finalized in early 1999 and will begin to be implemented in late 1999/2000. The current IP Version 4 address set will be exhausted by 2003
  • The book focuses on planning and configuring networks and devices for IP 6. Specifically, it will cover how to: Increase the IP address size from 32 bits to 128 bits; Support more levels of addressing hierarchy; Support an increased number of addressable nodes; Support simpler auto-configuration of addresses; Improve the scalability of multicast routing by adding a "scope" field to multicast addresses; Use a new "anycast address" to send a packet to any one of a group of nodes

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. solutions@syngress.com
  5. Copyright
  6. Acknowledgments
  7. Contributors
  8. Preface
  9. Editor’s Acknowledgments
  10. Chapter 1: Addressing and Subnetting Basics
    1. IP Address Basics
    2. Classful Addressing–Structure and Size of Each Type
    3. What Is a Network?
    4. Class A
    5. Class B
    6. Class C
    7. Address Assignments
    8. Multihomed Devices
    9. Multinetting—Multiple Addresses per Interface
    10. Examples
    11. Purpose of Subnetting
    12. The Basic Fixed-Length Mask
    13. What the Mask Does
    14. Components of a Mask
    15. Binary Determination of Mask Values
    16. Decimal Equivalent Mask Values
    17. Creating Masks for Various Networking Problems
    18. Addresses and Mask Interaction
    19. Reserved and Restricted Addresses
    20. Determining the Range of Addresses within Subnets
    21. Determining Subnet Addresses Given a Single Address and Mask
    22. Interpreting Masks
    23. Reserved Addresses
    24. Summary
    25. FAQs
  11. Chapter 2: Creating an Addressing Plan for Fixed-Length Mask Networks
    1. Introduction
    2. Determine Addressing Requirements
    3. How Many Subnets Do You Need?
    4. How Many IP Addresses Are Needed in Each Subnet?
    5. What about Growth?
    6. Choose the Proper Mask
    7. Consult the Tables
    8. Obtain IP Addresses
    9. From Your Organization’s Network Manager
    10. From Your ISP
    11. From Your Internet Registry
    12. Calculate Ranges of IP Addresses for Each Subnet
    13. Worksheets
    14. Subnet Calculators
    15. Allocate Addresses to Devices
    16. Assigning Subnets
    17. Assigning Device Addresses
    18. Document Your Work
    19. Keeping Track of What You’ve Done
    20. Paper
    21. Spreadsheets
    22. Databases
    23. In Any Case
    24. Summary
    25. FAQs
    26. Exercises
    27. Answers
    28. Subnetting Tables
    29. Class B Subnetting Table
    30. Class C Subnetting Table
    31. Subnet Assignment Worksheet
  12. Chapter 3: Private Addressing and Subnetting Large Networks
    1. Introduction
    2. Strategies to Conserve Addresses
    3. CIDR
    4. VLSM
    5. Private Addresses
    6. Addressing Economics
    7. An Appeal
    8. Public vs Private Address Spaces
    9. Can I Pick My Own?
    10. RFC 1918—Private Network Addresses
    11. The Three-Address Blocks
    12. Considerations
    13. Which to Use When
    14. Strategy for Subnetting a Class A Private Network
    15. The Network
    16. The Strategy
    17. Address Assignment
    18. The Headquarters LANs
    19. The WAN Links from Headquarters to the Distribution Centers
    20. The Distribution Center LANs
    21. The WAN Links from the DC to the Stores
    22. The Store LANs
    23. Results
    24. Summary
    25. FAQs
    26. Exercises
    27. Answers
  13. Chapter 4: Network Address Translation
    1. Introduction
    2. Hiding Behind the Router/Firewall
    3. What Is NAT?
    4. How Does NAT Work?
    5. Network Address Translation (Static)
    6. How Does Static NAT Work?
    7. Double NAT
    8. Problems with Static NAT
    9. Configuration Examples
    10. Windows NT 2000
    11. Cisco IOS
    12. Linux IP Masquerade
    13. Network Address Translation (Dynamic)
    14. How Does Dynamic NAT Work?
    15. Problems with Dynamic NAT
    16. Configuration Examples
    17. Port Address Translation (PAT)
    18. How Does PAT Work?
    19. Problems with PAT
    20. Configuration Examples
    21. Windows NT 2000
    22. Linux IP Masquerade
    23. Cisco IOS
    24. What Are the Advantages?
    25. What Are the Performance Issues?
    26. Proxies and Firewall Capabilities
    27. Packet Filters
    28. Proxies
    29. Stateful Packet Filters
    30. Stateful Packet Filter with Rewrite
    31. Why a Proxy Server Is Really Not a NAT
    32. Shortcomings of SPF
    33. Summary
    34. FAQs
    35. References & Resources
    36. RFCs
    37. IP Masquerade/Linux
    38. Cisco
    39. Windows
    40. NAT Whitepapers
    41. Firewalls
  14. Chapter 5: Variable-Length Subnet Masking
    1. Introduction
    2. Why Are Variable-Length Masks Necessary?
    3. Right-sizing Your Subnets
    4. More Addresses or More Useful Addresses?
    5. The Importance of Proper Planning
    6. Creating and Managing Variable-Length Subnets
    7. Analyze Subnet Needs
    8. Enumerate Each Subnet and Number of Required Nodes
    9. Determine Which Mask to Use in Each Subnet
    10. Allocate Addresses Based on Need For Each Subnet
    11. Routing Protocols and VLSM
    12. Class C VLSM Problem
    13. Completing the Class C Problem
    14. Template-based Address Assignment
    15. Summary
    16. FAQs
  15. Chapter 6: Routing Issues
    1. Introduction
    2. Classless Interdomain Routing
    3. From Millions to Thousands of Networks
    4. ISP Address Assignment
    5. Using CIDR Addresses Inside Your Network
    6. Contiguous Subnets
    7. IGRP
    8. EIGRP
    9. EIGRP Concepts
    10. RIP-1 Requirements
    11. Comparison with IGRP
    12. Routing Update Impact
    13. RIP-2 Requirements
    14. OSPF
    15. Configuring OSPF
    16. Routing Update Impact
    17. OSPF Implementation Recommendations
    18. BGP Requirements
    19. IBGP and EBGP Requirements
    20. Loopback Interfaces
    21. Summary
    22. FAQs
  16. Chapter 7: Automatic Assignment of IP Addresses with BOOTP and DHCP Objectives
    1. Introduction
    2. The Role of Dynamic Address Assignment
    3. A Brief History
    4. Address Management with These Tools
    5. Field Descriptions and Comments
    6. OP
    7. HTYPE
    8. HLEN
    9. HOPS
    10. XID
    11. SECS
    12. FLAG
    13. CIADDR
    14. YIADDR
    15. SIADDR
    16. GIADDR
    17. CHADDR
    18. SNAME
    19. FILE
    20. VEND/OPTION
    21. BOOTP Process Details
    22. Field Values in the BOOTREPLY packet
    23. The BOOTP Server Database
    24. How Does DHCP Work?
    25. DHCP Process Overview
    26. DHCP Process Details
    27. DHCP-Specific Options
    28. Interoperation between DHCP and BOOTP
    29. DHCP Address Scopes
    30. Comparing BOOTP and DHCP
    31. How BOOTP Works
    32. BOOTP Process Overview
    33. DHCP/BOOTP Options
    34. BOOTP Options from RFC 1497
    35. IP Layer Parameters per Host
    36. IP Layer Parameters per Interface
    37. Link Layer Parameters per Interface
    38. TCP Parameters
    39. Application and Service Parameters
    40. BOOTP, DHCP, and Routed Networks
    41. The BOOTP Relay Agent
    42. The Role of the GIADDR
    43. Other Fields Involved
    44. CHADDR, YIADDR, HTYPE, HLEN, FLAG
    45. BOOTP Implementation Checklist
    46. DHCP Implementation Checklist
    47. Summary
    48. FAQs
  17. Chapter 8: Multicast Addressing
    1. What Is Multicast?
    2. Mapping IP Multicast to the Link Layer
    3. Joining the Group
    4. IGMP
    5. Multicast Routing Protocols
    6. Mbone
    7. Multicast Addresses
    8. Transient and Permanent Addresses
    9. Generic Assignments
    10. IANA Assignments
    11. Scope of Multicast Addresses Using TTL
    12. Administrative Scopes
    13. IP Stacks and Multicast
    14. Why Multicast?
    15. Summary
    16. FAQ
  18. Chapter 9: IPv6 Addressing
    1. Introduction
    2. IPv6 Addressing Basics
    3. IPv6 Addressing Scheme Characteristics
    4. Version
    5. Traffic Class
    6. Flow Label
    7. Payload Length
    8. Next Header
    9. Hop-by-Hop Options Header
    10. More Bits!
    11. A More Flexible Hierarchical Organization of Addresses
    12. Aggregation Realized
    13. Minimizing the Size of Routing Tables
    14. Global Addresses for the Internet and Local Addresses for Intranet
    15. IPv6 Benefits
    16. Increased IP Address Size
    17. Increased Addressing Hierarchy Support
    18. Simplified Host Addressing
    19. Simpler Autoconfiguration of Addresses
    20. Improved Scalability of Multicast Routing
    21. The Anycast Address
    22. The Need for Further Development
    23. The Multihoming Problem
    24. The 6Bone
    25. Summary
    26. FAQ
  19. Chapter 10: The IPv6 Header
    1. Introduction
    2. Expanded Addressing
    3. Simplified Header
    4. Improved Support for Extension and Option
    5. Flow and Flow Labeling
    6. Authentication and Privacy
    7. IPv6 Header
    8. IPv4 Header
    9. Extension Headers
    10. Hop-by-Hop Option Header
    11. Routing Header
    12. Fragment Header
    13. Authentication Header
    14. Encapsulating Security Payload
    15. Destination Options Header
    16. Upper-Layer Protocol Issues
    17. Summary
    18. FAQs
  20. Address Assignment
  21. Index
  22. Administering Active Directory