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IP Routing Fundamentals by Mark A. Sportack

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The OSI Reference Model

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) developed the OSI reference model to facilitate the open interconnection of computer systems. An open interconnection is one that can be supported in a multivendor environment. The reference model identifies and stratifies into logically ordered layers all the functions required to establish, use, define, and dismantle a communications session between two computers without regard for those computers' manufacturer or architecture.

Implicit in this definition of the OSI reference model is the assumption that an unknown quantity of distance and networking gear separate the two communicating devices. Consequently, the model defines mechanisms for passing data between ...

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