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IP Routing Fundamentals by Mark A. Sportack

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Carrier System Standards

Like any other standard networking technology, WAN transmission facilities feature standardized transmission schemes. Such schemes define transmission rates and media types, as well as framing formats and multiplexing methodologies. There are many such schemes and they vary by both geography and technology. Some of the more commonly encountered standards include the following:

  • ANSI's Digital Signal Hierarchy

  • ITU's Digital Signal Hierarchy

  • SONET's Optical Carrier System

  • SONET's Synchronous Transport Signal System

These standards are implemented in carrier systems. The remainder of this chapter provides an overview of some of the more useful signaling standards, as well as the carrier systems that are their physical embodiment. ...

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