The topology of a wide-area internetwork describes the way the transmission facilities are arranged relative to the locations they interconnect. Numerous topologies are possible, each offering a different mix of cost, performance, and scalability. More subtly, some functional specialization may be introduced by topology that has a direct bearing on the transmission facilities.
Some of the more simple topologies are
Each of these is described and illustrated throughout the rest of this section. Their relative cost, performance, scalability, and technology implications are also examined.
A peer-to-peer WAN can be developed using leased private lines ...