Introduction

Within Cisco’s Focused Technical Support (FTS) organization, a large number of questions about the IOS, IOS XE, and IOS XR operating systems are encountered on a daily basis. This book answers IP routing questions, in addition to covering the implementation and troubleshooting differences between the operating systems.

In alignment with the saying “a picture is worth a thousand words,” multiple illustrations are included in the chapters to explain the various concepts. All protocols are presented conceptually, with applicable illustrations, configurations, and appropriate output. The scope of this book evolved to include the IOS and IOS XE operating systems so that non-IOS XR users could benefit from the explanations on the routing ...

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