The IP stack provides a protocol for resolving addresses. The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is used to take care of the translation of IP addresses to physical addresses and hide these physical addresses from the upper layers.

Generally, ARP works with mapping tables (referred to as the ARP cache). The table provides the mapping between an IP address and a physical address. In a LAN (like Ethernet or an IEEE 802 network), ARP takes the target IP address and searches for a corresponding physical address in a mapping table. If it finds the address, it returns the 48-bit address back to the requester, such as a device driver or server on a LAN. However, if the needed address is not found in the ARP cache, ...

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