O'Reilly logo

Stay ahead with the world's most comprehensive technology and business learning platform.

With Safari, you learn the way you learn best. Get unlimited access to videos, live online training, learning paths, books, tutorials, and more.

Start Free Trial

No credit card required

IPv6 Fundamentals: A Straightforward Approach to Understanding IPv6, 2nd Edition

Book Description

Organizations are increasingly transitioning to IPv6, the next generation protocol for defining how devices of all kinds communicate over networks. Now fully updated, IPv6 Fundamentals offers a thorough, friendly, and easy-to-understand introduction to the knowledge and skills you need to deploy and operate IPv6 networks.

Leading networking instructor Rick Graziani explains all the basics simply and clearly, step-by-step, providing all the details you'll need to succeed. You'll learn why IPv6 is necessary, how it was created, how it works, and how it has become the protocol of choice in environments ranging from cloud to mobile and IoT.

Graziani thoroughly introduces IPv6 addressing, configuration options, and routing protocols, including EIGRP for IPv6, and OSPFv3 (traditional configuration and with address families). Building on this coverage, he then includes more in-depth information involving these protocols and processes.

This edition contains a completely revamped discussion of deploying IPv6 in your network, including IPv6/IPv4 integration, dynamic address allocation, and understanding IPv6 from the perspective of the network and host. You'll also find improved coverage of key topics such as Stateless Address Autoconfiguration (SLAAC), DHCPv6, and the advantages of the solicited node multicast address.

Throughout, Graziani presents command syntax for Cisco IOS, Windows, Linux, and Mac OS, as well as many examples, diagrams, configuration tips, and updated links to white papers and official RFCs for even deeper understanding.

  • Learn how IPv6 supports modern networks encompassing the cloud, mobile, IoT, and gaming devices

  • Compare IPv6 with IPv4 to see what has changed and what hasn't

  • Understand and represent IPv6 addresses for unicast, multicast, and anycast environments

  • Master all facets of dynamic IPv6 address allocation with SLAAC, stateless DHCPv6, and stateful DHCPv6

  • Understand all the features of deploying IPv6 addresses in the network including temporary addresses and the privacy extension

  • Improve operations by leveraging major enhancements built into ICMPv6 and ICMPv6 Neighbor Discovery Protocol

  • Configure IPv6 addressing and Access Control Lists using a common topology

  • Implement routing of IPv6 packets via static routing, EIGRP for IPv6, and OSPFv3

  • Walk step-by-step through deploying IPv6 in existing networks, and coexisting with or transitioning from IPv4

Table of Contents

  1. Title Page
  2. Copyright Page
  3. About the Author
  4. About the Technical Reviewers
  5. Dedication
  6. Acknowledgments
  7. Contents at a Glance
  8. Contents
  9. Icons Used in This Book
  10. Command Syntax Conventions
  11. Introduction
    1. Goals and Methods
    2. Who Should Read This Book
    3. How This Book Is Organized
  12. Part I: Introduction to IPv6
    1. Chapter 1. Introduction to IPv6
      1. IPv6 Is Here
        1. Why Transition to IPv6?
      2. IPv4
        1. IPv4 Address Depletion
        2. CIDR
        3. NAT with Private Addresses
      3. What About IPv5?
      4. The Fascinating History of IPv6
        1. Some Background
        2. IPv4 Address Exhaustion and the Need for More International Involvement
        3. A Call for Proposals
        4. A More IP Version of IPv6
      5. IPv6: More Than Just Longer Addresses
        1. IPv6 Myths
      6. Transitioning to IPv6
      7. Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. References
        1. Endnotes
        2. RFCs
        3. Websites
    2. Chapter 2. IPv6 Primer
      1. Hexadecimal Number System
      2. IPv6 Address Types
        1. Global Unicast Address (GUA)
        2. Link-Local Unicast Address
        3. Unspecified Address
        4. Solicited-Node Multicast Address
      3. Address Terminology
      4. ICMPv6 Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP)
        1. Neighbor Solicitation (NS) and Neighbor Advertisement (NA) Messages
        2. Router Solicitation (RS) and Router Advertisement (RA) Messages
      5. Dynamic Address Allocation
      6. Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. References
        1. RFCs
    3. Chapter 3. Comparing IPv4 and IPv6
      1. Comparing the IPv4 and IPv6 Headers
        1. The IPv4 and IPv6 Version Fields
        2. IPv4 Internet Header Length (IHL) Field
        3. IPv4 Type of Service (ToS) and IPv6 Traffic Class Fields
        4. IPv6 Flow Label Field
        5. IPv4 Total Length Field, IPv6 Payload Length Field, and IPv6 Jumbograms
        6. IPv4 and IPv6 MTUs
        7. IPv4 Fragmentation
        8. IPv6 Fragmentation: IPv6 Source Only
        9. IPv4 Protocol and IPv6 Next Header Fields
        10. IPv4 Time to Live (TTL) and IPv6 Hop Limit Fields
        11. Checksums: IPv4, TCP, and UDP
        12. IPv4 and IPv6 Source Address and Destination Address Fields
        13. IPv4 Options and Padding Fields, IPv6 Fixed Length
      2. IPv6 over Ethernet
      3. Packet Analysis Using Wireshark
      4. Extension Headers
        1. Hop-by-Hop Options Extension Header
        2. Routing Extension Header
        3. Fragment Extension Header
        4. IPsec: AH and ESP Extension Headers
        5. Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) Extension Header
        6. Authentication Header (AH) Extension Header
        7. Destination Options Extension Header
        8. No Next Header
      5. Comparing IPv4 and IPv6 at a Glance
      6. Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. References
        1. RFCs
        2. Websites
  13. Part II: IPv6 Addresses
    1. Chapter 4. IPv6 Address Representation and Address Types
      1. Representation of IPv6 Addresses
        1. Rule 1: Omit Leading 0s
        2. Rule 2: Omit All-0s Hextets
        3. Combining Rule 1 and Rule 2
      2. Prefix Length Notation
      3. IPv6 Address Types
        1. IPv6 Address Space
      4. Unicast Addresses
        1. Global Unicast Address
        2. Link-Local Unicast Address
        3. Loopback Addresses
        4. Unspecified Addresses
        5. Unique Local Addresses
        6. IPv4 Embedded Address
      5. Multicast Addresses
      6. Anycast Addresses
      7. Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. References
        1. Endnote
        2. RFCs
        3. Websites
        4. Book
    2. Chapter 5. Global Unicast Address
      1. Structure of a Global Unicast Address
        1. Global Routing Prefix
        2. Subnet ID
        3. Interface ID
      2. Manual Configuration of a Global Unicast Address
        1. Manual GUA Configuration for Cisco IOS
        2. Manual GUA Configuration with EUI-64 for Cisco IOS
        3. Manual GUA Configuration with IPv6 Unnumbered for Cisco IOS
        4. Manual GUA Configuration for Windows, Linux, and Mac OS
        5. Implementing Static Routing and Verifying Connectivity with Ping
      3. Recognizing the Parts of a GUA Address and the 3–1–4 Rule
        1. Examining Other Prefix Lengths
      4. Subnetting IPv6
        1. Extending the Subnet Prefix
        2. Subnetting on a Nibble Boundary
        3. Subnetting Within a Nibble
        4. Subnetting /127 Point-to-Point Links
        5. ipv6gen: An IPv6 Subnetting Tool
      5. Prefix Allocation
        1. Provider-Aggregatable (PA) and Provider-Independent (PI) Address Space
      6. General Prefix Option
      7. Dynamic Addressing Methods with SLAAC and DHCPv6
      8. Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. References
        1. Endnote
        2. RFCs
        3. Websites
    3. Chapter 6. Link-Local Unicast Address
      1. Structure of a Link-Local Unicast Address
      2. Automatic Configuration of a Link-Local Address
        1. EUI-64 Generated Interface ID
        2. Randomly Generated Interface ID
      3. Manual Configuration of a Link-Local Address
      4. Link-Local Address and Duplicate Address Detection
      5. Link-Local Addresses and Default Gateways
      6. ipv6 enable: Isolated Link-Local Address
      7. Pinging a Link-Local Address
      8. Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. References
        1. RFCs
    4. Chapter 7. Multicast Addresses
      1. Scope
        1. Multicast with Link-Local Scope Versus Link-Local Unicast Addresses
      2. Well-Known Multicast Addresses
      3. Solicited-Node Multicast Addresses
        1. Mapping Unicast Address to Solicited-Node Multicast Address
        2. Mapping to the Ethernet MAC Address
        3. Verifying the Address Mappings on Cisco IOS, Windows, and Linux
        4. Multiple Devices Using the Same Solicited-Node Multicast Address
        5. One Solicited-Node Multicast Address for Multiple Unicast Addresses
      4. Multicast Listener Discovery
        1. MLD Snooping
      5. Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. References
        1. RFCs
        2. Websites, Videos, and Books
  14. Part III: Dynamic IPv6 Addressing
    1. Chapter 8. Basics of Dynamic Addressing in IPv6
      1. Dynamic IPv4 Address Allocation: DHCPv4
      2. Dynamic IPv6 Address Allocation
        1. ICMPv6 Router Solicitation and Router Advertisement Messages
        2. Router Advertisement Methods and the A, O, and M Flags
        3. Method 1: Stateless Address Autoconfiguration (SLAAC)
        4. Method 2: SLAAC with Stateless DHCPv6
        5. Method 3: Stateful DHCPv6
      3. DHCPv6 Services
        1. DHCPv6 Terminology and Message Types
        2. DHCPv6 Communications
      4. Summary
      5. Review Questions
      6. References
        1. RFCs
        2. Website
    2. Chapter 9. Stateless Address Autoconfiguration (SLAAC)
      1. The RA Message and SLAAC
        1. On-Link Determination
      2. Generating an Interface ID
        1. Generating the Interface ID Using the EUI-64 Process
        2. Privacy Extension for Stateless Address Autoconfiguration
        3. Privacy Extension and Generating Randomized Interface IDs
        4. Privacy Extension and Temporary Addresses
      3. Autoconfigured Address States and Lifetimes
        1. Example: Autoconfigured Address States and Lifetimes
      4. Router Advertisement Fields and Options
        1. Examining the Router Advertisement with Wireshark
        2. Modifying the Valid Lifetime and Preferred Lifetime in the RA Message
        3. Including the DNS Address in the Router Advertisement
        4. Router Advertisement Configuration Options
      5. Default Address Selection
      6. Configuring the Router’s Interface as a SLAAC Client
      7. Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. References
        1. RFCs
        2. Websites
        3. Other
    3. Chapter 10. Stateless DHCPv6
      1. SLAAC with Stateless DHCPv6
      2. Implementing Stateless DHCPv6
        1. Configuring the RA Message’s Other Configuration Flag
        2. Configuring a Router as a Stateless DHCPv6 Server
        3. Verifying Stateless DHCPv6 on a Windows Client
        4. Verifying the Router as a Stateless DHCPv6 Server
      3. DHCPv6 Options
        1. rapid-commit Option
        2. Relay Agent Communications
      4. Summary
      5. Review Questions
      6. References
        1. RFCs
        2. Websites
    4. Chapter 11. Stateful DHCPv6
      1. Stateful DHCPv6 Messages and Process
      2. Implementing Stateful DHCPv6
        1. Configuring the RA Message M Flag and A Flag
        2. Configuring a Router as a Stateful DHCPv6 Server
        3. Verifying Stateful DHCPv6 on a Windows Client
        4. Verifying the Router as a Stateful DHCPv6 Server
        5. DHCPv6 Options
      3. IPv6 Prefix Delegation Options for DHCPv6
        1. Sample Configuration: Prefix Delegation with DHCPv6
      4. Summary
      5. Review Questions
      6. References
        1. RFCs
        2. Websites
  15. Part IV: ICMPv6 and ICMPv6 Neighbor Discovery
    1. Chapter 12. ICMPv6
      1. General Message Format
      2. ICMP Error Messages
        1. Destination Unreachable
        2. Packet Too Big
        3. Time Exceeded
        4. Parameter Problem
      3. ICMP Informational Messages
        1. Echo Request and Echo Reply
      4. Summary
      5. Review Questions
      6. References
        1. RFCs
    2. Chapter 13. ICMPv6 Neighbor Discovery
      1. Neighbor Discovery Options
      2. Default Router and Prefix Determination
        1. Router Solicitation Message
        2. Router Advertisement Message
      3. Address Resolution
        1. The Address Resolution Process
        2. Characteristics of the Neighbor Solicitation Message
        3. Format of the Neighbor Solicitation Message
        4. Format of the Neighbor Advertisement Message
      4. Neighbor Cache
        1. Destination Cache
      5. Duplicate Address Detection (DAD)
      6. Neighbor Unreachability Detection (NUD)
      7. Redirect Message
      8. Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. References
        1. RFCs
  16. Part V: Routing IPv6
    1. Chapter 14. IPv6 Routing Table and Static Routes
      1. Configuring a Router as an IPv6 Router
      2. Understanding the IPv6 Routing Table
        1. Codes: NDp and ND
        2. Code: Connected
        3. Code: Local
      3. Configuring IPv6 Static Routes
        1. Static Routes with a GUA Next-Hop Address
        2. Static Routes with a Link-Local Next-Hop Address
        3. Static Routes with Only an Exit Interface
        4. Default Static Routes with Link-Local Next-Hop Addresses
      4. Verifying IPv6 Static Routes
      5. Summarizing IPv6 Routes
        1. IPv6 Summary Static Route
      6. CEF for IPv6
      7. Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. References
        1. RFCs
        2. Websites
        3. Books
    2. Chapter 15. EIGRP for IPv6
      1. Comparing EIGRPv4 and EIGRPv6
      2. Classic EIGRP for IPv6
        1. Configuring Classic EIGRP for IPv6
        2. Verifying Classic EIGRP for IPv6
      3. EIGRP Named Mode for IPv6
        1. Configuring EIGRP Named Mode for IPv6
        2. Verifying EIGRP Named Mode for IPv6
        3. Comparing EIGRP Named Mode for IPv4 and IPv6
      4. Summary
      5. Review Questions
      6. References
        1. RFC
        2. Websites
        3. Books
    3. Chapter 16. OSPFv3
      1. Comparing OSPFv2 and OSPFv3
      2. Traditional OSPFv3
        1. Configuring Traditional OSPFv3
        2. Verifying Traditional OSPFv3
      3. OSPFv3 with Address Families
        1. Configuring OSPFv3 with AF
        2. Verifying OSPFv3 with AF
        3. Configuring OSPFv3 for an IPv4 Island
      4. Summary
      5. Review Questions
      6. References
        1. RFCs
        2. Websites
        3. Books
  17. Part VI: Implementing IPv6
    1. Chapter 17. Deploying IPv6 in the Network
      1. IPv6 Address Plan Considerations
        1. Encoding Information in the Subnet ID
        2. VLAN-Mapped Subnet ID
        3. IPv6 Address Plans
      2. IPv6 VLANs
      3. IPv6 First Hop Redundancy Protocols
        1. ICMPv6 Neighbor Discovery
        2. HSRP and VRRP
        3. GLBP
        4. Selecting an FHRP
      4. Dual Stack
        1. IPv6 Address Format in URL Syntax
      5. DNS
        1. DNS Query and Response
        2. Happy Eyeballs
      6. IPv6 Access Control Lists
        1. Configuring IPv6 ACLs
      7. Transition Technologies
        1. Translation with NAT64
        2. Other Translation Techniques
      8. Tunneling IPv6
      9. Conclusion
      10. Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. References
        1. RFCs
        2. Websites
  18. Appendixes
    1. Appendix A. Configuring NAT64 and IPv6 Tunnels
      1. Configuring NAT64
      2. Configuring IPv6 Tunnels
        1. Manual Tunnels
        2. 6to4 Tunnels
        3. ISATAP
    2. Appendix B. IPv6 Command Quick Reference
      1. Cisco IOS Commands
        1. Addressing Commands
        2. ICMPv6 Router Advertisement Commands
        3. Configuring a DHCPv6 Server
        4. IPv6 Access Control Lists
        5. Static Routes, Displaying the Routing Table, and CEF for IPv6
        6. EIGRP for IPv6
        7. OSPFv3
      2. Host Operating System Commands
        1. Windows OS
        2. Linux OS
        3. Mac OS X
    3. Appendix C. Answers to Review Questions
      1. Chapter 1
      2. Chapter 2
      3. Chapter 3
      4. Chapter 4
      5. Chapter 5
      6. Chapter 6
      7. Chapter 7
      8. Chapter 8
      9. Chapter 9
      10. Chapter 10
      11. Chapter 11
      12. Chapter 12
      13. Chapter 13
      14. Chapter 14
      15. Chapter 15
      16. Chapter 16
      17. Chapter 17
  19. Index
  20. Code Snippets