IP Routing and Forwarding

IP has emerged as the dominant Layer 3 protocol for connectionless networking. IP is part of a suite of protocols referred to as the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) protocol suite (or simply as the Internet Protocol suite). The IP suite embraces many protocols, some of which are listed in RFC 1800, “Internet Official Protocol Standards.” This list of IP-related protocols continues to grow as new applications emerge. Some key IP protocols include the following:

  • Internet Protocol (IP)

  • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)

  • User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

  • Internet Message Control Protocol (ICMP)

  • Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)

TCP and UDP provide transport for applications and run over the IP layer. ICMP ...

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