Glossary

80/20 rule: A management principle evolved from observations of Italian economist Vilfredo Pareto. It states that 80 percent of consequences are derived from 20 percent of causes.

access controls: Rights or permissions that users have to access information resources.

access token: An electronic device that provides information to the requesting user or directly to the authentication service. Examples of access tokens include smart cards and radio frequency identification (RFID) cards.

accessibility: In information technology, accessibility refers to the ability of individuals with disabling conditions, such as impairment of vision or hearing, to have comparable use of and access to data and technology as do individuals without disabling conditions.

agile programming: A rapid application development (RAD) strategy that involves very short timetables applied to incremental programmatic output, with overall goals often measured in weeks with daily meetings to measure progress. Typically, the code tests are developed first, followed by the code to suit those tests. Each small code segment is added to the whole until all pieces have been completed.

anti-malware software: Software designed to protect information systems against malware.

application programming interface (API): A set of instructions provided by software vendors, particularly operating system vendors, and used by software programmers to develop applications for use in a particular environment.

application stack: ...

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