Java provides the
`byte`

, `short`

,
`int`

, `long`

,
`float`

, and `double`

primitive types for representing
numbers. The `java.lang`

package includes the corresponding
`Byte`

, `Short`

,
`Integer`

, `Long`

,
`Float`

, and `Double`

classes, each
of which is a subclass of `Number`

. These classes
can be useful as object wrappers around their primitive types, and
they also define some useful constants:

// Integral range constants: Integer, Long, and Character also define these Byte.MIN_VALUE // The smallest (most negative) byte value Byte.MAX_VALUE // The largest byte value Short.MIN_VALUE // The most negative short value Short.MAX_VALUE // The largest short value // Floating-point range constants: Double also defines these Float.MIN_VALUE // Smallest (closest to zero) positive float value Float.MAX_VALUE // Largest positive float value // Other useful constants Math.PI // 3.14159265358979323846 Math.E // 2.7182818284590452354

The
`Math`

class
defines a number of methods that provide trigonometric, logarithmic,
exponential, and rounding operations, among others. This class is
primarily useful with floating-point values. For the trigonometric
functions, angles are expressed in radians. The logarithm and
exponentiation functions are base *e*, not base
10. Here are some examples:

double d = Math.toRadians(27); // Convert 27 degrees to radians d = Math.cos(d); // Take the cosine d = Math.sqrt(d); // Take the square root d = Math.log(d); // Take the natural logarithm d = ...

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