Document and Element Geometry and Scrolling
In this chapter so far we have thought about documents as abstract trees of elements and text nodes. But when a browser renders a document within a window, it creates a visual representation of the document in which each element has a position and a size. Often, web applications can treat documents as trees of elements and never have to think about how those elements are rendered onscreen. Sometimes, however, it is necessary to determine the precise geometry of an element. We’ll see in Chapter 16, for example, that the CSS can be used to specify the position of an element. If you want to use CSS to dynamically position an element (such as a tooltip or callout) next to some ordinary browser-positioned element, you need to be able to determine the location of that element.
This section explains how you can go back and forth between the abstract, tree-based model of a document and the geometrical, coordinate-based view of the document as it is laid out in a browser window. The properties and methods described in this section have been implemented in browsers for a long time (though some were, until recently, IE-specific and some were not implemented by IE until IE9). At the time of this writing, they are going through the W3C standardization process as the CSSOM-View Module (see http://www.w3.org/TR/cssom-view/).
Document Coordinates and Viewport Coordinates
The position of an element is measured in pixels, with the X coordinate increasing to ...