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JavaServer Pages, Second Edition by Hans Bergsten

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Chapter 11. Accessing a Database

Almost all the web applications that you see on the Internet access a database. Databases store customer information, order information, product information, even discussion forum messages -- in short, all information that needs to survive a server restart and is too complex to handle in plain-text files.

There are many types of databases used in the industry today. However, relational databases are by far the most common. A relational database uses tables to represent the information it handles. A table consists of rows of columns, with each column holding a single value of a predefined data type. Examples of these data types are text data, numeric data, dates, and binary data such as images and sound. A specialized language called Structured Query Language (SQL) is used to access the data. SQL is an ANSI standard and is supported by all major database vendors.

Relational database engines come in all shapes and sizes, from simple one-person databases with limited features, to sophisticated databases capable of handling large numbers of concurrent users with support for transactions distributed over multiple servers and extremely optimized search algorithms. Even though they all use SQL as the data access language, the API used to execute SQL statements is different for each database engine. To help programmers write code that’s portable between database engines, the standard Java libraries include an API called the Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) ...

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