Chapter 13. National Identification Numbers
Many countries have a National Identification Number assigned to their citizens and other residents. These various national systems usually grew out of taxation systems that needed to assess individual persons and then mutated into general person identification tools within the country.
Finland and other Nordic countries use a variant of the Swedish design. The Finnish personal identification number (Finnish: henkilötunnus [HETU], Swedish: personbeteckning) uses the format DDMMYYCZZZQ, where DDMMYY is the date of birth, C is the century identification sign (+ for the 19th century, – for the 20th, and A for the 21st), ZZZ is the personal identification number (even for females, odd for males) and Q is ...

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