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### 18.4. Bin Packing Problems

There is a set of math problems called bin packing problems that relate to the real world. Imagine that you have a bunch of items that you have to put into a box to ship. Each item has a size or shipping weight expressed as an integer and the box has a capacity expressed by another integer in the same units.

I take the box and start filling it. My goal is either to fill the box to capacity or to get as many single items as I can in the box (perhaps without filling it all the way). A more complex version also assigns value and item weight to each item; a very lightweight box can have a great value—a few grams of diamonds are worth more than a ton of sand. Another version has more than one box; another can have restrictions ...

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