When are two values or objects equal or identical?

Whether two values are equal or not can be decided by the == operator, for example, 5 == 5 and 5 == 5.0 are both true. Equivalent to this operator is the isequal() function:

isequal(5, 5)   #> true 
isequal(5, 5.0) #> true 

Both the preceding statements return true, because objects such as numbers are immutable and they are compared at the bits level.

To see whether the two objects x and y are identical, they must be compared with the === operator. The result is a Bool value, true or false: x === y -> Bool, for example:

5 === 5 #> true 5 === 5.0 #> false

For objects that are more complex, such as strings, arrays, or objects that are constructed from composite types, the addresses in the memory ...

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