186 Just ordinAry robots
require no driver at all. Actually, it is an ongoing automation and
interconnection of single vehicles and trac’s infrastructure that
aims at fully self-driving or autonomous cars. e National Highway
Trac Safety Administration (2013) developed a ve-level hierarchy
to conceptualize this continuum as guidance “to help states imple-
ment this technology safely so that its full benets can be realized”:
• Level 0 (no automation): e human driver is in complete con-
trol of all functions of the vehicle.
• Level 1 ( function-specic automation): One control function is
• Level 2 (combined-function automation): More than one con-
trol function is automated at the same time (e.g., steering and
acceleration), but the driver must remain constantly attentive.
• Level 3 (limited self-driving automation): e driver functions
are suciently automated so that the driver can safely engage
in other activities (e.g., reading a paper).
• Level 4 (fully self-driving automation): e car can drive itself
without a human driver.
e automation of control functions started with the features of con-
venience and safety, such as cruise control in 1958* and anti-lock
braking system (ABS) in 1972
(level 1). Automation of multiple and
integrated control functions, such as adaptive cruise control with lane
centering, has become more common recently. ey are classied as
level 2, because they still allow the driver to override them: the driver
is responsible for monitoring the roadway and is expected to be avail-
able for control all the time. e next step in this continuum is taking
over driving tasks through cooperative systems—in conjunction with
trac management (level 3). Ultimately, it is expected that this will
lead to autonomous vehicles (level 4).
In this chapter, we dene car robotization as a combination of
developments in the following technologies: driver assistance systems,
trac management, and cooperative systems. In fact, these technolo-
gies are the building blocks for the fully autonomous car, which we