When we ask why, in a certain inhabited area of a country, such and such a language is no longer used … we are faced with a limited number of answers … The causes and the processes of such language shifts are worthy of study, not only because they are so often the indicators of actual or impending language conflict, but also because they are intimately related to the life and death of languages.
(Mackey, 1980: 36)
Most contact between ethnic groups does not occur in peaceful, harmoniously co-existing communities.
(Nelde, 1987: 34)
We have already seen how competition, or conflict, is central to the operation of ecosystems. It is a concept which is fundamental to our understanding of ...