Chapter 1Introduction to Energy Efficiency in Large-Scale Distributed Systems

Jean-Marc Pierson1 and Helmut Hlavacs2

1IRIT, University of Toulouse, France

2Faculty of Computer Science, University of Vienna, Austria

1.1 Energy Consumption Status

The demand for research in energy efficiency in large-scale systems is supported by several incentives [1–3], including financial incentives by government or institutions to energy efficient industries/companies [4–5]. Indeed, studies such as [6] reported already in 2006 that the information technology (IT) consumption accounts for 5% to 10% of the growing global electricity demand and for a mere 2% of the energy while data centers alone account for 14% of the information and communication technology (ICT) footprint. It was projected that by 2020, the energy demand of data centers will represent 18% of the ICT footprint, the carbon footprint rising at an annual 7% pace, doubling between 2007 and 2020 [7]. The study of Koomey [8] in 2011 highlights that the rise of energy consumption is not as bad as expected in 2007: between 2005 and 2010, the electricity demand for data centers increased by (only) about 56% worldwide instead of the projected doubling and even as low as 36% in the United States. Altogether the electricity used worldwide for operating data centers in 2010 accounted for about 1.3% of total electricity use.

The past 5 years have witnessed the increase of research focusing especially in energy reduction. While being a major ...

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