In the real world, however, a manager either has little choice or must select a subordinate on the basis of knowledge or expertise rather than on the qualities cited above.
What can the manager do in these cases? He or she can intervene in the stress appraisal process of subordinates by increasing their perceptions of challenge.
One factor influencing the appraisal of a situation as challenging is the expected benefits: individuals are more likely to perceive a demanding situation as challenging if they expect positive outcomes. A manager can influence perceptions of demanding situations by ensuring that there are positive outcomes and that subordinates know what those positive outcomes are.
The manager needs to utilize the ...