Leadership in Organizations, Eight Edition

Book Description

This is the eBook of the printed book and may not include any media, website access codes, or print supplements that may come packaged with the bound book.

An exploration of what makes an effective leader.

 

Leadership in Organizations provides a balance of theory and practice as it surveys the major theories and research on leadership and managerial effectiveness in formal organizations.

 

The eighth edition includes new examples, citations, and guidelines, and has been enhanced for better clarity and presentation.

Table of Contents

  1. Leadership in Organizations
  2. Leadership in Organizations
  3. Brief Contents
  4. Table of Contents
  5. Preface
  6. Chapter 1 Introduction: The Nature of Leadership
    1. Learning Objectives
    2. Definitions of Leadership
      1. Specialized Role or Shared Influence Process?
      2. Type of Influence Process
      3. Purpose of Influence Attempts
      4. Influence Based on Reason or Emotions
      5. Direct and Indirect Leadership
      6. Leadership or Management
      7. A Working Definition of Key Terms
    3. Indicators of Leadership Effectiveness
      1. Immediate and Delayed Outcomes
      2. What Criteria to Use?
    4. Major Perspectives in Leadership Theory and Research
      1. Trait Approach
      2. Behavior Approach
      3. Power-Influence Approach
      4. Situational Approach
      5. Integrative Approach
    5. Level of Conceptualization for Leadership Theories
      1. Intra-Individual Processes
      2. Dyadic Processes
      3. Group Processes
      4. Organizational Processes
      5. Multi-level Theories
    6. Other Bases for Comparing Leadership Theories
      1. Leader-Centered or Follower-Centered Theory
      2. Descriptive or Prescriptive Theory
      3. Universal or Contingency Theory
    7. Organization of the Book
    8. Summary
    9. Review and Discussion Questions
    10. Key Terms
  7. Chapter 2 Nature of Managerial Work
    1. Learning Objectives
    2. Activity Patterns for Managers
      1. Pace of Work Is Hectic and Unrelenting
      2. Content of Work Is Varied and Fragmented
      3. Many Activities Are Reactive
      4. Interactions Often Involve Peers and Outsiders
    3. Decision Making and Planning by Managers
      1. Emotions and Intuition are Often Involved
      2. Important Decisions are Disorderly and Political
      3. Routine Decisions are Different
      4. Most Planning Is Informal and Adaptive
    4. Managerial Roles
      1. Mintzberg's Taxonomy of Roles
      2. Role Conflicts
    5. Demands, Constraints, and Choices
      1. Core Components
      2. Situational Determinants
      3. How Much Discretion Do Managers Have?
    6. Other Determinants of Managerial Work
      1. Level of Management
      2. Size of Organizational Unit
      3. External Dependencies
      4. Crisis Situations
      5. Stage in the Organizational Life Cycle
      6. Social Changes Affecting Managerial Work
    7. Limitations of the Descriptive Research
    8. Guidelines for Managers
    9. Summary
    10. Review and Discussion Questions
    11. Key Terms
    12. Case Acme Manufacturing Company
      1. Questions
  8. Chapter 3 Effective Leadership Behavior
    1. Learning Objectives
    2. Ways for Describing Leadership Behavior
    3. Major Types of Leadership Behavior
      1. Task and Relations Behaviors
      2. Change-oriented Behavior
      3. Participative Leadership
      4. Transformational Leadership
      5. External Leadership Behaviors
    4. Methods for Studying the Effects of Leader Behavior
      1. Example of a Critical Incident Study
      2. Example of Diary Incident Study
      3. Examples of Field Experiments
      4. Interpreting Causality in Leader Behavior Research
    5. Effects of Task and Relations Behaviors
      1. General Findings
      2. Evaluation of the Behavior Research
    6. Planning Work Activities
    7. Clarifying Roles and Objectives
      1. Guidelines for Clarifying
    8. Monitoring Operations and Performance
      1. Guidelines for Monitoring
    9. Supportive Leadership
      1. Guidelines for Supporting
    10. Developing Subordinate Skills
      1. Guidelines for Developing
    11. Providing Praise and Recognition
      1. Guidelines for Recognizing
    12. Summary
    13. Review and Discussion Questions
    14. Key Terms
    15. Case Consolidated Products
      1. Questions
    16. Case Air Force Supply Squadron
      1. Questions
  9. Chapter 4 Leading Change and Innovation
    1. Learning Objectives
    2. Types of Change in Teams and Organizations
      1. Roles or Attitudes
      2. Technology
      3. Strategy
      4. Economics or People
    3. Change Processes
      1. Stages in the Change Process
      2. Stages in Reaction to a Change
      3. Prior Experience and Reactions to Change
    4. Reasons for Accepting or Rejecting Change
      1. Proposed Change Is Not Necessary
      2. Proposed Change Is Not Feasible
      3. Change Is Not Cost Effective
      4. Change Would Cause Personal Losses
      5. Proposed Change Is Inconsistent With Values
      6. Leaders Not Trusted
      7. Summary
    5. Implementing Change
      1. Determining What to Change
      2. Understanding Systems Dynamics
      3. Responsibility for Implementing Major Change
      4. The Pace and Sequencing of Changes
    6. Guidelines for Implementing Change
    7. How Visions Influence Change
      1. Desirable Characteristics for a Vision
      2. Elements of a Vision
      3. Guidelines for Developing a Vision
    8. Collective Learning and Innovation
      1. Internal Creation of New Knowledge
      2. External Acquisition of New Knowledge
      3. Exploration and Exploitation
      4. Knowledge Diffusion and Application
      5. Learning Organizations
    9. Guidelines for Enhancing Learning and Innovation
    10. Summary
    11. Review and Discussion Questions
    12. Key Terms
    13. Case Ultimate Office Products
      1. Questions
  10. Chapter 5 Participative Leadership and Empowerment
    1. Learning Objectives
    2. Nature of Participative Leadership
      1. Varieties of Participation
      2. Potential Benefits of Participative Leadership
      3. Objectives for Different Participants
    3. Research on Effects of Participative Leadership
      1. Example of an Experimental Field Study
      2. Findings in Participation Research
    4. Normative Decision Model
      1. Decision Acceptance and Quality
      2. Situational Variables
      3. Decision Rules
      4. Summary
    5. Guidelines for Participative Leadership
      1. Diagnosing Decision Situations
      2. Encouraging Participation
    6. Delegation
      1. Varieties of Delegation
      2. Potential Benefits from Delegation
      3. Reasons for Lack of Delegation
      4. Research on Consequences of Delegation
    7. Guidelines for Delegating
      1. What to Delegate
      2. How to Delegate
    8. Perceived Empowerment
      1. Nature of Psychological Empowerment
      2. How Leaders Can Increase Empowerment
    9. Empowerment Programs
      1. Leader Selection and Assessment
      2. Democratic Decision Procedures
      3. Shared Leadership Responsibilities
      4. Information Sharing
      5. Consequences of Empowerment Programs
    10. Summary
    11. Review and Discussion Questions
    12. Key Terms
    13. Case Echo Electronics
      1. Questions
    14. Case Alvis Corporation
      1. Questions
  11. Chapter 6 Leadership Traits and Skills
    1. Learning Objectives
    2. Introduction to the Trait Approach
      1. Individual Attributes Relevant for Leadership
      2. Types of Research on Leader Traits and Skills
      3. Overview of Findings in the Trait Research
      4. Findings in Research on Derailed Managers
    3. Personality Traits and Effective Leadership
      1. Energy Level and Stress Tolerance
      2. Self-Confidence
      3. Internal Locus of Control
      4. Emotional Stability and Maturity
      5. Power Motivation
      6. Personal Integrity
      7. Narcissism
      8. Achievement Orientation
      9. Need for Affiliation
      10. The Big Five Personality Traits
    4. Skills and Effective Leadership
      1. Technical Skills
      2. Conceptual Skills
      3. Interpersonal Skills
    5. Managerial Competencies
      1. Emotional Intelligence
      2. Social Intelligence
      3. Learning Ability
    6. Situational Relevance of Skills
      1. Level of Management
      2. Type of Organization
      3. External Environment
    7. Evaluation of the Trait Approach
    8. Guidelines for Managers
    9. Summary
    10. Review and Discussion Questions
    11. Key Terms
    12. Case National Products
      1. Charley Adams
      2. Bill Stuart
      3. Ray Johnson
        1. Questions
  12. Chapter 7 Contingency Theories and Adaptive Leadership
    1. Learning Objectives
    2. General Description of Contingency Theories
      1. Types of Variables
      2. Causal Effects of Situational Variables
    3. Early Contingency Theories
      1. Path-Goal Theory
      2. Leadership Substitutes Theory
      3. Situational Leadership Theory
      4. The LPC Contingency Model
      5. Cognitive Resources Theory
    4. Multiple-linkage Model
      1. Mediating Variables
      2. Situational Variables
      3. Short-Term Actions to Correct Deficiencies
      4. Long-Term Effects on Group Performance
    5. Conceptual Weaknesses in Contingency Theories
      1. Over-emphasis on Behavior Meta-categories
      2. Ambiguous Description of Relationships
      3. Inadequate Explanation of Causal Effects
      4. Lack of Attention to Behavior Patterns
      5. Lack of Attention to Joint Effects of Situational Variables
      6. Failure to Distinguish Between Mediators and Situational Moderators
    6. Research on Contingency Theories
    7. Comparative Evaluation of Contingency Theories
    8. Guidelines for Adaptive Leadership
    9. Guidelines for Managing Immediate Crises
    10. Summary
    11. Review and Discussion Questions
    12. Key Terms
    13. Case Foreign Auto Shop
      1. Part 1
        1. Questions
      2. Part 2
        1. Questions
  13. Chapter 8 Power and Influence Tactics
    1. Learning Objectives
    2. Power and Influence Concepts
      1. Power
      2. Authority
      3. Influence Processes
      4. General Types of Influence Tactics
      5. Influence Outcomes
    3. Power Sources
      1. Legitimate Power
      2. Reward Power
      3. Coercive Power
      4. Referent Power
      5. Expert Power
      6. Information Power
      7. Ecological Power
      8. Position and Personal Power
    4. How Power Is Gained or Lost
      1. Social Exchange Theory
      2. Strategic Contingencies Theory
      3. Institutionalization of Power
    5. Consequences of Power
    6. Guidelines for Using Power
      1. How to Use Legitimate Power
      2. How to Use Reward Power
      3. How to Use Coercive Power
      4. How to Use Expert Power
      5. How to Use Referent Power
    7. Proactive Influence Tactics
      1. Rational Persuasion
      2. Apprising
      3. Inspirational Appeals
      4. Consultation
      5. Exchange
      6. Collaboration
      7. Ingratiation
      8. Personal Appeals
      9. Legitimating Tactics
      10. Pressure
      11. Coalition Tactics
    8. Effectiveness of Proactive Tactics
      1. Effects of Individual Tactics
      2. Combining Tactics
      3. Sequencing Tactics
      4. Using the Tactics to Resist Influence Attempts
    9. Guidelines for Specific Tactics
      1. Rational Persuasion
      2. Inspirational Appeals
      3. Consultation
      4. Collaboration
    10. Power and Influence Behavior
    11. Summary
    12. Review and Discussion Questions
    13. Key Terms
    14. Case Restview Hospital
      1. Questions
    15. Case Sporting Goods Store
      1. Questions
  14. Chapter 9 Dyadic Relations and Followers
    1. Learning Objectives
    2. Leader-Member Exchange Theory
      1. Research on LMX
      2. Determinants and Consequences of LMX
      3. Evaluation of LMX Theory
    3. Leader Attributions About Subordinates
      1. Two-Stage Attribution Model
      2. Other Determinants of Leader Attributions
    4. Leader Influence on Follower Emotions
    5. Guidelines for Correcting Performance Deficiencies
    6. Follower Attributions and Implicit Theories
      1. Determinants of Follower Attributions about Leaders
      2. Implications of Follower Attributions about Leaders
      3. Implicit Leadership Theories
    7. Impression Management by Leaders and Followers
      1. Impression Management by Followers
      2. Impression Management by Leaders
    8. Follower Contributions to Effective Leadership
      1. Follower Identities and Behavior
      2. Integrating Leader and Follower Roles
    9. Self-Management
      1. Self-Management Strategies
      2. Effects of Self-Management
      3. How Leaders Encourage Self-Management
    10. Guidelines for Followers
    11. Summary
    12. Review and Discussion Questions
    13. Key Terms
    14. Case Cromwell Electronics
      1. Questions
    15. Case American Financial Corporation
      1. Questions
  15. Chapter 10 Leadership in Teams and Decision Groups
    1. Learning Objectives
    2. Determinants of Team Performance
      1. Commitment to Task Objectives and Strategies
      2. Member Skills and Role Clarity
      3. Internal Organization and Coordination
      4. External Coordination
      5. Resources and Political Support
      6. Cooperation and Mutual Trust
      7. Collective Efficacy and Potency
      8. Accurate, Shared Mental Models
      9. Member Diversity
      10. Group Process Dichotomies
    3. Functional Work Teams
    4. Cross-functional Teams
      1. Benefits and Limitations of Cross-functional Teams
      2. Leadership in Cross-functional Teams
    5. Self-managed Work Teams
      1. Benefits and Limitations of Self-managed Teams
      2. Leadership in Self-managed Teams
    6. Virtual Teams
      1. Benefits and Limitations of Virtual Teams
    7. Guidelines for Leading Teams
    8. Leading Decision Groups
      1. Task-oriented Functions
      2. Group Maintenance Functions
      3. Who Should Perform the Leadership Functions
    9. Guidelines for Leading Meetings
    10. Summary
    11. Review and Discussion Questions
    12. Key Terms
    13. Case Southwest Engineering Services
      1. Questions
  16. Chapter 11 Strategic Leadership in Organizations
    1. Learning Objectives
    2. Determinants of Organizational Performance
      1. Adaptation to the Environment
      2. Efficiency and Process Reliability
      3. Human Resources and Relations
      4. Competitive Strategy
      5. Management Programs, Systems, and Structures
    3. How Leaders Influence Organizational Performance
      1. Trade-offs and Synergies
      2. Coordinating Leadership Across Levels and Subunits
    4. Situations Affecting Strategic Leadership
      1. Constraints on Top Executives
      2. Environmental Uncertainty and Crises
    5. Organizational Culture
      1. Functions of Culture
      2. Culture and Organizational Performance
      3. Leader Influence on Culture
      4. Difficulty of Culture Change
    6. Research on Effects of Strategic Leadership
      1. Studies of CEO Succession
      2. Descriptive Studies of CEO Decisions and Actions
      3. Survey Studies on CEO Leadership
      4. Evaluation of Research on Strategic Leadership
    7. Executive Teams
      1. Potential Advantages
      2. Facilitating Conditions
      3. Leadership of Executive Teams
      4. Example of a Study on Executive Teams
    8. Emerging Conceptions of Organizational Leadership
      1. Shared and Distributed Leadership
      2. Relational Leadership
      3. Complexity Theory of Leadership
    9. Two Key Responsibilities for Top Executives
      1. External Monitoring
      2. Developing Competitive Strategy
    10. Guidelines for Strategic Leadership
    11. Summary
    12. Review and Discussion Questions
    13. Key Terms
    14. Case Costco
      1. Questions
    15. Case Turnaround at Nissan
      1. Questions
  17. Chapter 12 Charismatic and Transformational Leadership
    1. Learning Objectives
    2. Attribution Theory of Charismatic Leadership
      1. Leader Behaviors
      2. Influence Processes
      3. Facilitating Conditions
    3. Self-Concept Theory of Charismatic Leadership
      1. Leader Traits and Behaviors
      2. Influence Processes
      3. Facilitating Conditions
    4. Other Conceptions of Charisma
      1. Psychodynamic Processes
      2. Close and Distant Charisma
      3. Charismatic versus Ideological and Pragmatic Leaders
    5. Consequences of Charismatic Leadership
      1. Positive and Negative Charismatics
      2. Effects of Positive Charismatics
      3. The Dark Side of Charisma
      4. Practical Implications for Organizations
    6. Transformational Leadership
      1. Leader Behaviors
      2. Influence Processes
      3. Facilitating Conditions
    7. Research on Charismatic and Transformational Leadership
      1. Survey Studies
      2. Laboratory and Field Experiments
      3. Comparative Analyses of Leader Descriptions
      4. Example of a Comparative Biographical Study
      5. Intensive Case Studies
      6. Example of an Intensive Case Study
    8. Comparison of Charismatic and Transformational Leadership
    9. Evaluation of the Theories
      1. Relevance of Antecedents
      2. Explanation of Mediating Processes
      3. Implications for Change and Effectiveness
      4. Identification of Situational Variables
    10. Guidelines for Inspirational Leadership
    11. Summary
    12. Review and Discussion Questions
    13. Key Terms
    14. Case Astro Airlines
      1. Part 1
        1. Questions
      2. Part 2
        1. Questions
  18. Chapter 13 Ethical, Servant, Spiritual, and Authentic Leadership
    1. Learning Objectives
    2. Conceptions of Ethical Leadership
      1. Defining Ethical Leadership
      2. Personal Integrity and Ethical Leadership
    3. Dilemmas in Assessing Ethical Leadership
      1. Influencing Expectations
      2. Influencing Values and Beliefs
      3. Multiple Stakeholders and Competing Values
    4. Determinants and Consequences of Ethical Leadership
      1. Individual Determinants of Ethical Leadership
      2. Situational Influences on Ethical Leadership
      3. Consequences of Ethical and Unethical Leadership
    5. Theories of Ethical Leadership
      1. Transforming Leadership
      2. Servant Leadership
      3. Spiritual Leadership
      4. Authentic Leadership
    6. Evaluation of Ethical Leadership Theories
      1. Comparison to Transformational and Charismatic Leadership
      2. Evaluation of the Ethical Leadership Theories
    7. Guidelines for Ethical Leadership
      1. Ways for Individuals to Promote Ethical Practices
      2. Programs to Promote Ethical Behavior
      3. Cultural Values, Laws, and Professional Standards
    8. Summary
    9. Review and Discussion Questions
    10. Key Terms
    11. Case Unethical Leadership at Enron
      1. Questions
  19. Chapter 14 Cross-cultural Leadership and Diversity
    1. Learning Objectives
    2. Introduction to Cross-cultural Leadership
      1. Importance of Cross-cultural Research
      2. Types of Cross-cultural Studies
      3. Cultural Influences on Leadership Behavior
      4. Cross-cultural Research on Behavior Differences
      5. Cross-cultural Research on the Effects of Leader Behavior
      6. The GLOBE Project
    3. Cultural Value Dimensions and Leadership
      1. Power Distance
      2. Uncertainty Avoidance
      3. Individualism (vs. Collectivism)
      4. Gender Egalitarianism
      5. Performance Orientation
      6. Humane Orientation
      7. Culture Clusters
    4. Evaluation of Cross-cultural Research
    5. Gender and Leadership
      1. Sex-based Discrimination
      2. Theories of Male Advantage
      3. Theory of Feminine Advantage
      4. Explanations for the Glass Ceiling
      5. Findings in Research on Gender Differences
      6. Limitations of Research on Gender Differences
      7. Identifying Causes and Reducing Discrimination
      8. Summary of Leader Gender Research
    6. Managing Diversity
      1. Fostering Appreciation and Tolerance
      2. Providing Equal Opportunity
    7. Summary
    8. Review and Discussion Questions
    9. Key Terms
    10. Case Madison, Jones, and Conklin
      1. Questions
  20. Chapter 15 Developing Leadership Skills
    1. Learning Objectives
    2. Leadership Training Programs
      1. Types of Leadership Training Programs
      2. Design of Leadership Training
      3. Effects of Leadership Training
    3. Learning from Experience
      1. Amount of Challenge
      2. Variety of Tasks or Assignments
      3. Accurate, Relevant Feedback
    4. Developmental Activities
      1. Multisource Feedback Programs
      2. Developmental Assessment Centers
      3. Developmental Assignments
      4. Mentoring
      5. Executive Coaching
      6. Simulations
      7. Personal Growth Programs
    5. Facilitating Conditions for Leadership Development
      1. Support by the Boss
      2. Learning Climate
      3. Criteria for Developmental Assignments
    6. Systems Perspective on Leadership Development
      1. Relationships Among Approaches
      2. Integrating Developmental Activities
      3. Leadership Development for the Organization
      4. Guidelines for Self-Development
    7. Summary
    8. Review and Discussion Questions
    9. Key Terms
    10. Case Federated Industries
      1. Questions
  21. Chapter 16 Overview and Integration
    1. Learning Objectives
    2. Major Findings About Effective Leadership
      1. The Leadership Situation
      2. Leadership Behavior
      3. Power and Influence
      4. Traits and Skills
    3. Multilevel Explanatory Processes
      1. Motivation and Commitment
      2. Social Identification
      3. Trust and Cooperation
      4. Knowledge and Skills
      5. Specialization
      6. Perceived Efficacy and Optimism
      7. Empowerment
      8. Collective Learning and Innovation
    4. Toward an Integrating Conceptual Framework
    5. Limitations in Leadership Research
      1. Qualitative versus Quantitative Methods
      2. Survey versus Experimental Studies
      3. Level of Analysis
      4. Other Methodological Issues
      5. Summary of Research Limitations
    6. Concluding Thoughts
      1. The Essence of Effective Leadership
      2. The State of the Field
    7. Review and Discussion Questions
    8. Key Terms
  22. References
  23. Author Index
    1. A
    2. B
    3. C
    4. D
    5. E
    6. F
    7. G
    8. H
    9. I
    10. J
    11. K
    12. L
    13. M
    14. N
    15. O
    16. P
    17. Q
    18. R
    19. S
    20. T
    21. U
    22. V
    23. W
    24. X
    25. Y
    26. Z
  24. Subject Index
    1. A
    2. B
    3. C
    4. D
    5. E
    6. F
    7. G
    8. H
    9. I
    10. J
    11. K
    12. L
    13. M
    14. N
    15. O
    16. P
    17. R
    18. S
    19. T
    20. U
    21. V
    22. W

Product Information

  • Title: Leadership in Organizations, Eight Edition
  • Author(s): Gary A. Yukl
  • Release date: July 2013
  • Publisher(s): Pearson
  • ISBN: 9780132771863