Appendix A. Glossary

A/B testing

A type of experiment that rolls out a different version of the component that you are trying to test to different groups. By comparing the performance of two versions of a single element, A/B testing helps validate a specific hypothesis. Also known as split testing.

App store optimization

A strategy that consists in optimizing the site where your app is sold in order to facilitate the sale or download.


Incoming links that point to a section of your brand’s site.


A brand is the unique story that consumers recall when they think of you. This story associates your product with their personal stories, a particular personality, what you promise to solve, and your position in relation to competitors. Your brand is represented by your visual symbols and feeds from multiple conversations where you must participate strategically.

Brand collateral

The material that we use to communicate our brand’s message to a determined audience (e.g., press, potential customers, and investors).

Brand friction

The resistance to changing brand symbols, stories, and strategies fearing that they may reflect confusion or inconsistency or otherwise hurt consumer perception.

Brand imagery

A selection of images that represent and help explain the brand’s story in the marketplace. Brand imagery elucidates and exemplifies the product, positioning, pricing, personality, and promise that the brand offers to a specific set of buyer personas.

Brand Journey Maps

Types of customer journey ...

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