Chapter 4
Integrating SHE into 
the Autonomous 
Maintenance Pillar
Better a thousand times careful than once dead.
Chinese proverb
4.1  Overview of the Integration of 
Autonomous Maintenance and SHE
Autonomous maintenance (AM), or Jishu-hozen in Japanese, is commonly
referred to as the pace-setting pillar inasmuch as it plays a key role in
establishing the speed of the Lean/TPM process implementation and the
resulting rate of operational improvement and culture change. The term
maintenance in autonomous maintenance does not to refer to craftpersons
xing equipment, but rather to operating personnel maintaining or keeping
equipment in good running order. AM, a basic building block of a Lean/
TPM process, consists of the following seven steps that aim to improve both
plant equipment and plant personnel, and thereby increase overall equip-
ment effectiveness (OEE):
Step 1: Initial clean
Step 2: Countermeasures to sources of contamination
68 ◾  Lean Sustainability
Step 3: Tentative AM standards
Step 4: General inspections
Step 5: Autonomous inspection or checking
Step 6: Standardization
Step 7: All-out AM management
The steps of AM build upon each other and form a systematic process in
which operators gain a deeper understanding of their equipment, assume
ownership of their equipment, and take measures to ensure optimal equip-
ment performance. A key outcome of AM is that the equipment operates
better, and as a result the operator’s job is made easier and safer because he
or she does not have to adjust and fix the equipment as frequently. Thus, via
simple implementation of AM activities, improvements in safety, health, and
environmental performance are achieved.
By systematically integrating the autonomous maintenance and the SHE
pillar, an organization can achieve further improvements in overall equipment
effectiveness and in SHE. Both autonomous maintenance and SHE achieve
success by providing operators with the requisite knowledge, skills, and tools
to take ownership of their equipment. Similar to autonomous maintenance,
the concept of autonomous safety is the state in which operators have the
skills, knowledge, and motivation to work safely. Via autonomous mainte-
nance and autonomous safety, operators are empowered, take ownership of
their equipment and its safety, and actively make both operational and safety
improvements on the production line. In his book, TPM in Process Industries,
Tokutaro Suzuki emphasizes that because it takes time to establish a SHE
culture, it is important to incorporate safety, health, and environment into
autonomous maintenance at the earliest stages. According to Suzuki, “Safety
awareness takes time to sink in (therefore) it is important to begin addressing
it from the preparation phase.
Therefore, during each AM step specific auton-
omous maintenance tools and methodologies should be utilized and leveraged
to improve SHE performance. Figure4.1 shows the different SHE activities that
can be implemented during each successive AM step in order to drive SHE
performance and incorporate SHE into the organizational culture.
4.2  AM Step 1: Initial Cleaning and SHE
The first step of autonomous maintenance, initial cleaning, involves teams
of operators in the thorough deep cleaning of their equipment where
Integrating SHE into the Autonomous Maintenance Pillar ◾  69
every component of the machine is touched in order to expose equip-
ment abnormalities.
During AM Step 1 operators develop and execute a
detailed equipment cleaning plan, tag equipment defects that are identified,
explore reasons behind the defects, and implement some initial improve-
ments. As previously discussed, these activities bring workers into intimate
Danger Anticipation
Detect, Tag SHE
Pointing & Naming
Eliminate Sources of
Leaks, Spills, Dust
Zero Leak & Spill
Include SHE in
Provisional Stds
Use of Visual SHE
SHE Loss Tree
AM Step 1
AM Step 2 AM Step 3
Figure 4.1  SHE activities undertaken during AM Steps 1–3.

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