Windows and web programs are enormously complex. Programs present information to users in graphically rich ways, offering complicated user interfaces, complete with drop-down and pop-up menus, buttons, listboxes, and so forth. Behind these interfaces, programs model complex business relationships, such as those among customers, products, orders, and inventory. You can interact with such a program in hundreds if not thousands of different ways, and the program must respond appropriately every time.
To manage this enormous complexity, programmers have developed a technique called object-oriented programming. It is based on a very simple premise: you manage complexity by modeling its essential aspects. The closer your program models the problem you are trying to solve, the easier it is to understand (and thus to write and to maintain) that program.
Programmers refer to the problem you are trying to solve and all the information you know that relates to your problem as the problem domain. For example, if you are writing a program to manage the inventory and sales of a company, the problem domain would include everything you know about how the company acquires and manages inventory, makes sales, handles the income from sales, tracks sales figures, and so forth. The sales manager and the stock room manager would be problem domain experts who can help you understand the problem domain.
A well-designed object-oriented program is filled with objects ...