Common vector GIS concepts
This section will discuss the different types of GIS processes commonly used in geospatial analysis. This list is not exhaustive; however, it provides you with the essential operations that all other operations are based on. If you understand these operations, you can quickly understand much more complex processes as they are either derivatives or combinations of these processes.
GIS vector data uses coordinates consisting of, at a minimum, an x horizontal value and a y vertical value to represent a location on the Earth. In many cases, a point may also contain a z value. Other ancillary values are possible including measurements or timestamps.
These coordinates are used to form points, lines, and polygons ...